عنوان مقاله [English]
Describing and investigating the compound verbs have included a wide range of researches among language researchers (grammarians and linguists); however the issue of compound verbs seems unclear. The abundant criteria for recognition of compound verbs which most of them are often deficient can be as a good reason for this assertion. It appears that one of the elements resulting in this ambiguity is the method used in their researches. The main theme of this descriptive-analytic study, therefore, concerns with the mistakes in the process of research on compound verbs, focusing on shortcomings and deficiencies, based upon the data provided in Farsi grammar books in five parts, namely "definitions, terminology, examples, criteria and reasoning." This article, however, provides only the search results of the first two chapters.
Pathology of the definition of compound verbs: Compound verb has been defined with different features as: 1. combination of two or more parts which one of them is a verb. 2. The two parts have a single meaning. 3. The verb component doesn't have its main meaning and isn't declinable. Among these definitions Homayoon Farrokh and Lazar have presented a better definition which is more appropriate and acceptable. The definitions analyzed in this research has defects such as: lack of exhaustiveness and exclusiveness, lack of accordance between the definition and examples, increasing or using unnecessary adverbs, ambiguity in the concepts of adverbs like different perceptions of the same adverb, using multiple concepts in definition of different kinds of compound verbs. These deficiencies indicate the lack of grammarians' attention to grammatical terms and concepts and prevent the readers to have a systematic perception from language.
Pathology of compound verb terms: Compound verb is the only expression that his lead to ambiguous and multi-meaning expressions. It is over thirty years that the idiom "hamkard" is used as the verb component of the compound verb and combinations such as "hamkard shodegi" has been built based on it. Therefore, in spite of some applicative and verbal defects which have been proposed by some linguists, changing this term is not recommended. Consequently, verb being, conjugation and accepting "shenaseh" (distinctive component) can help us to obtain a perfect definition for compound verbs.
There is no term for the nonverbal component of the compound verb to be overspread, but some grammarians have used "verb helper" for it, but it is better to use an expression like "hamkard" though it shows no relation with compound verb.
In this research, some problems about the selection and usage of terms were found such as neglecting the common usage and grammatical system of these terms.
Pathology of the research methods: It seems that the verbal researches are achieved in three steps: compiling, classification and formulation. In each of these steps there may be some problems. What was said about the expressions indicates the easy going way of researchers in presenting the information which occurs after the formulation step. The obstruction in definition of compound verbs is rooted in not having a comprehensive recognition of the compound verbs. The main problem in the third part is the lack of integrity proportionate to the number and diversity of instances.
As presenting a comprehensive and proper definition of compound verbs is achieved from compiling and classification the verbal data, it can be said that these problems are a result of these two steps. Of course we are not sure about the lack of such researches and neglecting the structure of the language.