عنوان مقاله [English]
There are several ways for word-making, but literati and linguists , have described "combination" and "derivation" as one of the most important processes in the word-making; In this regard, the Persian language is due to the "Indo-European" language family and in this family, the process of word-making is mainly made up with "combination", is classified as "combinatorial languages," and on the other hand, the Arabic language, have same origin with the "Sami" languages, these languages is introduced and classified in the "derivational languages" because of the importance of "derivation" in the process of word-making. In this article, it has been tried to investigate the two processes of "composition and "derivation" in two languages "Persian and Arabic" with more in-depth analysis and from this perspective, a comparative review of these two languages is investigated.
However, the results of this research show that the processes of "combination and derivation" exist in both "Persian and Arabic" languages, but the concept and percentage of the usage of each process in these two languages are not the same and are different.
Similarities of "combination" in Persian language with Arabic language
The combination phenomenon in Arabic is not wide-spreading as Persian language. However, few similarities between some of the combination methods in these two languages can be counted:
• In both languages, the combination phenomenon is in all three types of the word (noun, verb, and letter).
• In both languages, there are additional combinations: "آبرو، سرمایه / ماوَرد، رِسمال
In both language, exist "Naht" (make a word from several words) or amalgamation: توانیر، رزمایش / جُلمود، طَبَرخَزمی
Differences of "combination" in Persian language with Arabic language
It should be said that although the main process of word-making in the Persian language is "combination", but some types of combination in Arabic language are wider, more systematic and methodic than Persian language.
• The "Naht", phenomenon in Arabic is more than Persian language. Arabs uses of "Naht" in three types of word (noun, verb, and letter); whereas this method is rarely found in some Persian nouns.
Similarities of "derivation" in Persian with Arabic
However, the concept of derivation is different in both Persian and Arabic languages, but few similarities between them can be counted:
• The process of "derivation", in both languages, is one of the main processes of word-making.
• It was said that "derivation" in Persian means: adding prefixes and suffixes to the roots of words; this definition also applies to a few Arabic words. This means that in Arabic, "You can rarely find suffixes which are added to the clause of the words, and get new words from them." For example, in Arabic, "proportion ya" and "infinitive yayt"… are same kind of derivation. (Zakeri, 1372: 377) for example, in some words such as: Ansari, Kamiyat (quantity), Keifiyat (quality) these suffixes give new meaning to the words.
• The role of "roots" in the process of derivation of both languages, Performs the main and fundamental role.
• In both languages, many parts of the derivation making, is based on the "verb" axis, it means that, derivation is limited to verb, but this principle has not been stable in none of these languages, and in few cases, derivations have also been derived from "names": Makalbe / Stealing; perhaps the only reason for the creation of such derivatives in both languages, is expanding their lexical domain.
Differences in "derivation" in Persian language with Arabic language
In Arabic, what is derived from root of verb called "derivation", and "underived" referred to other words, but in Persian, created with attachments (prefixes and suffixes), called "derivation" whether it derived from verb (verbal derivation) and whether not derived from the verb (non-verbal derivation). (Farshid Ward, 1382: 52).
In process of derivation and word-making in Persian, "metamorphosis doesn't find in the root itself or main word, and its letters don't separate." (Daraei, 1350: 8). Persian example; for "رو" root روش، رونده، روان" " – form "رنج" root "رنجش، رنجور، رنجیدگی، دلرنج" / Arabic example; from "ج ل س" "مَجلِس، مُجالِسه، إجلاس، جُلوس "
• The root, in the Arabic derivative words, are "Consonant letters" which is seen in all cognate words, such as "ق ص د", inاقتصاد، مقصد، مقصود، قاصد"" which in this words consonant letters are;"ق ص د" and root and letters ""أ، ت، م، و are redundant and adjoining elements, but root in derivation words of Persian; "The lexical part of the word is located in versus of the attachments (Suffixes and prefixes) and adjoining elements. For example; in the word "دانا", "دان" is root and "ا" is suffix and adjoining elements." (Farshidward, 1382; 136).
• The number of roots in Arabic derivatives is originally "three letters" (ثلاثی) three times), though, a few of the roots are four letters (quatrain) or quintuple letters (epical), but in Persian derivative the number of letters in roots is different.
• In Arabic, "all derivatives with the same principle are Branching out from" one root ", whereas this arrangement in some cases, been eaten in Persian. Today, in order to regulate the Persian derivation, from each verb must be considered two roots. "(Daraei, 1350: 17) One: is "بن مضارع" present infinitive, and another: "بن ماضی" past infinitive or idem abbreviation infinitive.
In Persian language, the common and natural and alive word-making is done with Organized or wisely and poetic wording and by the way of "combining" more than "derivation". In word-making in Persian language, though, "combination" is considered as very extensive and important hybrid language, but "derivation" is also known for an important process of word-making.
Also, since "derivation" is one of the most important ways of word-making in Arabic and it is considered as a derivational language, but "composition" also has its own place in this language.
Therefore, both the processes of "combination and derivation" exists in both "Persian and Arabic" languages, although the concept and percentage of the use of each process are not the same and there are different in these two languages.