عنوان مقاله [English]
In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Passing through the fire, falling into the blood, conquering hard and difficult fortresses, answering to the mysterious questions and passing of the kings is one of the most important bases for testing the heroes in which the heroes must go through an important and difficult test to achieve their goal. The passage of fire (or VER) to prove innocence in the story of Siavash, flooding in the blood to escape from the fateful destiny in Zohak's story, choosing the kingdom to determine the new king in the story of the kingdom of Kikávos,the test of choosing Zal’s husband, the sons of Fereydoun and Goshtasb by the priests, the Shah of Yemen and the Kaiser of Rome, testing the hero in the story of Haftkhan Rostam and Esfandiar, are the most important tests in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh. The purpose of this research is to analyze the basics, goals, forms, and structure of various tests in Shahnameh. This research is fundamentally based on library studies and descriptive-analytic methods. Heroes who have a godfather and support of God and who seek a clean and good development will easily pass these tests and triumph, but Zahak, who is bad, will fail in his test. All tests have the same structure, in the 1st place, the situation is balanced, then it changes with an incident and eventually the balance is restored with the action of the hero and the test.
In Shahnameh, in order to make a great work for a great outcome, it will lead to true victory, justice and defeating lies and injustice; heroes must pass through difficult tests and get rid of ignorance and foolishness, and Come out of the story while they get learned and wise. Examinations in Shahnameh are for the prompting to the pious kingdom, kingdom, and proof of innocence, spousal and immortality (Maskob, 2010: 33). Although sporadically, fire as a natural element in some research has been discussed, the purpose of the test was not to analyze it and how it was expressed; to take into account one of the functional roles of this element. Studies have not done so far on the basics, forms, goals, and structure of tests, especially the blood test, the choice of spouse, the kingdom and hero evaluation in a separate and scientific study.
2. Discussion and analysis
The most important tests of Shahnameh and their structural elements are shown in the following table:
The purpose of the test
The basis of the test
Siavash victory and purity
Proof of innocence
Defeat Zahhak and Evil
Escape from ominous fate and rebirth (immortality)
Victory of the Fereydoun Boys and Marriage to Yemen's King's Girls, Zal marriage with Rudaba and Vishtaspa with Ketayon
Choosing a Spouse and Ensuring the Competency, Wisdom and his Physical Fitness
The sons of Fereydoun, Zal and Vishtaspa
King of Yemen, Fereydoun, Manuchehr, Kaiser Roman
Fighting and mysterious questions
Conquest of the Bahman Fort and the Kingdom of Kay Khosrow on Persia
Getting into the kingdom,Measure competency in athletics, and wisdom
Conquer the fort
Choose a Kingdom
Win over enemies and achieve the goal
Coming to the fortress base, Rescue Shah (Prince), measure the competency in wisdom and athletic
Passing the khan
Hero testing (Haft Khan)
In the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the examiner is usually the kings (Fereydoun, Kay Kāvus, Manouchehr, Vishtaspa, Zahhak, Shah Yemen and Qaisar-Rom), Clergymen and priests (in the test of Zal and Siavash); and heroes (Zal) and tested; Shah (Zahhak), Princes (Fereydoun’s boys, Siavash, Esfandiar, Vishtaspa, Kay Khosrow, Fariborz); and the heroes are (Zal and Rostam).
Usually the heroes who seek to spread goodness and dominated evil with the support of God and the great power, they will come out of this test. As in Siavash's story, near fire proves the innocence of Siavash. Another test in Shahnameh is a blood test in Zahhak's story. Zahhak aims to change his fateful destiny to kill and sacrifice humans and animals and tries to change his fate which was killing by Fereydoun with creating a tale of blood that will fail in this test. Test the choice of kingdom in the story of Kay Kāvus’s kingdom and choosing Kay Khosrow after opening the Bahman fortress, Testing the hero in the story of Haft khan Rostam and Esfandiar, Choosing a spouse test For the sons of Iraj by Sarv Shah (king of Yemen), Zal and Goshtasb are among the most important other tests in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh.
The goal of these tests is to measure the competency and the wisdom of heroes, and they have a mythological meaning. With the exception of Zahak in the blood test, other heroes of the Shahnameh tests, who have a godsend of God, and they have the support of Allah and seek to develop purity and goodness, simply pass through these tests and win. All tests have the same structure: Initial balanceà Collapse balance and unstable situationàre-balance (A new steady state that takes shape).