عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the concerns of editors in editing ancient texts is adherence to orthography the manuscript or use to new orthography Persian language. Indeed, in editing ancient texts we cannot adhere to all the rules of the new orthography. Because poets sometimes have decorated their poems based on ancient orthography features. For this reason editors should note that sometimes accuracy of meaning is depends on the particular orthography.
The basis of this figurative device is formal elements of Persian Orthography and languages and symmetry. In this orthography we can paste some words together and write them separately and in general, a word can be written in different ways. This Properties of orthography makes the word in combination with other words find new meaning and in proportion or conflict with other word in the text create a semantic relationship. On the other hand, mankind has seen everything symmetrically and considered this symmetry a sign of beauty. In Persian literature Symmetry, both formally and semantically, has created many beauty and most rhetorical tricks are the result of symmetry.
Evidence shows that poets and authors are not used this figurative device for hobby but they used this device consciously. They have used too much from properties of orthography that causes bi-readings, amphibology of proportion, distortions, etc.
Orthography elements that make up this figurative device can be divided into four categories:
1- The rule pasting words together. This rule is one of the oldest traditions of the Persian orthography of course, without a special rule, such as:
وقف خواهد بُد تا حشر برین شوم حشَر
آخر ایران که از او بودی فردوس برشک
(Anvari, 1376: 203)
“بر این “in the second hemistich to fit the “فردوس “written connected. Modarres Razavi in your printing adhered to this orthography.
Remove tittle “است” and word previous connection to «-ست». The scribes in some periods attached «است» to The Previous word. Even «-ست» attached to the words with «هـ» without pronunciation and removed their «هـ»; such as افتادست.
کارم بکامست الحمد لله
عیشم مدامست از لعل دلخواه
Proportionality "= مستdrunk" with "=مدامconstant (= wine)" and "=عیشmirth" Depends on adhere to old Orthography.
3-Paste words to preposition “به ”, such as:
پسر دفع آن ندانست بسر در آمد(sadi, 1381:79)
«بسر»in proportion with children, brings to mind the word "= پسرson".
-4 Twofold writing, such as:
گاه موجیم و گاه دریائیم
(Shah namat allah vali)
غرقۀ بحر بیکران مائیم
The final word in first hemistich According to the current Orthography is written «ماییم» but «ماء» in meaning “آب =water” in «مائیم» has proportional to” غرقه= flooding",” بحر = دریا =sea" and” موج =wave" and so in this verse as «مائیم» is true.
Of course, we can divide these orthography elements into two categories: pasting words together («است» و «به») and Twofold writing But since each has its own evidence and seems had been raised to poets and writers in particular were introduced separately. We can divide the evidence on the basis of artistic creation. For example: 1. The dual ambiguity of two types of reading 2. Distortions proportion 3. Pun writing 4. Pun Anagram, Etc. But because this figurative device is based Orthography We knew better basis of Division be the factors of Orthography.
Figurative device in contemporary literature
This figurative device for contemporary poets is a new artistic source that it has been less attention. As:
دیشب باران قرار با پنجره داشت
روبوسی آبدار با پنجره داشت
یکریز به گوش پنجره پچپچ کرد
چک چک، چک چک... چکار با پنجره داشت؟ (Amin poor, 1388: 89)
In the example above «چکار» cannot be written «چه کار» because artistic elegance of poetry in repeat of «چک»By writing, «چه کـ[ار]» disappear.