عنوان مقاله [English]
Shams Qeys-i Razi is one of the greatest prosodist of Persian classic literature and his work, al-Moâjam fi Maâayir-e Ashâar al-Ajam is the most important book in the field of prosody and rhyme. In this book the writer has offered valuable and scientific views on poem aesthetic; rhyme, rhythm, lexicon and harmony between elements in Persian verse. In this work Shams Qeys as a familiar person to principles of scientific arguments in explanation of matters, has expressed his point of views. While discussing on verse, specially its external structure, the most important elements which have attracted Qeys attention and have been of his focus of attention include rhyme, rhythm in verse. In this regard Qeys can be referred as formalist criticizer; since he has more notice to external structure such as lexicon, rhyme and rhythm and even in his definition of verse, he knows it as rhythmic and rhymed words and he has not paid any attention to essence of literary work. In spite of all that, denotations which he has had to harmony, subject, content and rhyme proportion show that he has also had attention to link of form and content in verse. This feature of aesthetic in verse has been evaluated by him.
Qeys, in his book of al-Moâjam has offered valuable views on rhyme, rhythm and harmony among verse elements. Some of his views has not missed their newness and can be criteria in influence and importance of verse. By being familiarity with prosody science and its details, regards it as needs of poetic. He regards those who with no respect to prosody sing poems as skin-deep. In his point of view, prosody science is the criteria of right and wrong, Rhythmic and inharmonic of verse.
In the rhythms of verse, he uses expressions such as sweetness, pleasant, near to inclination and coherence and in this way shows his complete mastery of rhythms and points out that he is skillful in poetry and has absolute command to verbal, musical, aesthetical features and syntax and semantic aspects of Persian language. He has brought various reasons on heaviness of some rhythms in one hand and fluency of some others in Persian language which has been studied in this essay. He also regards that the harmony and proportion of bases and structures of verse is the cause of its more influence, and has invited poets to observe these important features. In spite of all these, he believes that each of the rhythms sweetness factors; harmony of structures and arrangement of, are not solely enough for the influence and acceptance of verse. And when they are near each other, poem will be more beautiful and more efficient. However, without existence of any of these features, poem will not obtain the beauty feature. He, in a detailed way, explains the discussion matter of “moves and statics” which is of causes of rhythm pleasure. The increase of “moves to statics” and vice versa is the cause of movement and heaviness of rhythm which Qeys has studied. It is needed to say that this feature and its effect in the attraction and pleasant of rhythm is also in the focus of attention of researchers in the field of rhyme, rhythm and prosody of Persian verse. Rhyme and its importance in verse and poem are the most important arguments in al-Moâjam.
He cares not to mention the verse which has not rhyme. In his pint of view, rhyme should be complement of music of words, and also have a great role in meaning transfer and general meaning. The rhyme should be so judicious that no one can replace it with other word. Expressions and words and how to use them in verse and prose have not been ignored of his sharp and punctilious look of Qeys. He believes that the language of verse should not be difficult. Language which is used for expressing verse and prose should be simple and fluent. Words and expressions should be of usual which are used mostly by merit scholarship. He doesn’t allow the usage of hard and heavy Arabic and Persian words. He says that verse language should be very similar to prose. He believes in the right election of words in verse. In his point of view every word doesn’t have permission to enter the verse area. Shams Qeys knows the coordination of word and meaning “the completion of verse”. One good poem has elements such as sweet words, pleasant meaning, right rhymes, easiness and fluency all together. He isn’t ignorant of internal harmony and companionship and paradigmatic relation. In his view, neighborhood of words and its qualification to each other is observed (Qeys, 1360: 329). Meaning coherence of verse and its reasonable order are among those cases which Qeys has paid attention in his critic of verse. According to his view good writing and coordination of structures of poem and the way of good combination give the poem aesthetic feature and make its effect greater. The poet should not spoil the effect of words with disconnection of couplet meaning. The structures in verse should be harmonic in its totality to have artistic effect. All these points and views are the signs of his skillful poetry and prosody mastery of this valuable scientist. Passing of days have not thrown dust of oldness to his views and all of his views has kept their nominative and are of focus attention of researchers of rhythm, poem music and aesthetic field.