عنوان مقاله [English]
Extensive studies on the structure and form of literary works have expanded semantic growth methods and stories and tales. As a huge part of the world, literature have created different methods and Semantic sciences in their own structure, also in the present day critics' attention to the structure of the story, review and analyze its constituent elements has grown variety opinions in this field. Narrative Science is one of these theories that emerge with the principles and rules of the structuralism school and aligns the reader with the characters of their stories and their thoughts along with the structural elements. The narrative is a text in which the narrator expresses a tale. Therefore, each tale is a narrative itself and whatever happens to mankind and non-human beings can be analyzed from a narrative perspective. In the narrative Science, the analysis of a tale is organized and the views of the critics and theorists in this science are arranged by using the definitive principles and rules. This science like language which focuses on elements and components such as phonemes and phrases examines and analyzes the smallest elements of the tale and its design and structure.
Todorova, in the position of one of the structuralism narrators, examines each tale from three verbal, syntacticand semantic representations. The study and analysis of narrative tales in the viewpoint of narrative theories suggest that stories and narrations are based on well-founded and systematic base of narrative structures. These structures, which represent the principles and structure of the narrative, place the story in a narrative line that aims to express the meaning and message of the tale. The study of Lion and Cow in Kalile and Demneh in terms of syntactic representation of Todorov's theory shows that narration and its principles correspond to these tales and have a regular and almost common structure. According to Todorov's theory, each tale consists of various propositions and episodes with its own characteristics which form the narrative structure of the story. By examining the Lion and Cow tale from these three perspectives, three sequences, six episode status, eight episodes of transition and more than twenty present and well-known narratives of the tale are formed.
In addition, what happened in the study of this story was the prelude or Showing future of narration sighting at the beginning of such tales that is not part of the narrative science. This section, which is one of the features of ancient Iranian stories, reveals the theme and purpose of the narration to the reader at the beginning of the story. Since these kinds of tales are accompanied by a moral message, showing future of narration sighting is a tool for the reader to become familiar with the ethical themes and guide his line of thought throughout the story. In addition, the narrative form of the story is one of the other elements that are considered in the syntactic representation of Todorov's theory and is expressed in three types of inputting, chaining and interchanging.
In the narrative study of Lion and Cow in Kelile and Demneh, it became clear that there are stories within this tale that are known to be internal stories and slightly different from the narrative theory of Todorov. In the narrative form of the theory of Todorov the character of the tales finds its own error and its effect by own hearing the inner story but in the Lion and Cow tale, the characters of the story discover the moral message of the inner stories by the end of the tale. On the other hand, the existence of the 2nd inner story, which is narrated for the purpose of the narrative of the inner (sub) 1st story, is another difference in this narrative of Todorov's theory about Kelile and Demneh. Therefore it is possible to examine each of the main stories and internal narratives based on the theories and the narrative views. According to what has been said the result of the study of narrative Science in the Lion and Cow tale shows that the tale goes ahead with the adventures, episodes, and elements that show the syntax of the narrative. In the above-mentioned tale, four sequences along with its propositions state the narrative of the tale in a way that confronts the reader with a world of tales and inner stories.