عنوان مقاله [English]
Sometimes poets and writers use ancient words and phrases in Persian language and literature to express their emotions and meanings (ancientism); sometimes they use different techniques to create novel ideas on the creation of words and combinations. In other words, the authors improve their vocabulary with the use of ancient words and the creation of new words and compositions. The Holy Defense literature is the general title that covers various types of poetry, story, novel, and memory. Memoir writing is one of the most important narrative approaches in Holy Defense literature. In this research, we try to study the types of lexical innovation and ancientism in order to introduce the works of memoir writing from the Holy Defense era. For this research, thirteen works were selected from Holy Defense narrators. After examining the language of these works and extracting the types of lexical innovation and lexicalism, according to different types of language (standard language, sub-standard, and over- standard), these innovations and ancientism were divided into six categories: (1) the creation of new terms and combinations; (2) the use of words, combinations, and terms of the alien, which itself consists of three parts: a) the use of foreign self-contained words and phrases in the language; b) Military and political terms and words; c) the use of hard foreign words ; 3) the use of native terms; 4) the use of everyday words and phrases; 5) The use of proper names; 6) the use of ancient words. In the result of this research it can be found that in these works the use of foreign words in different ways is the most. In contrast, the use of new words has been less widely used; also ancientism or archeanism has little effect on these works.
Different types of language in the studied works
In the study of the prose works of the Holy Defense memories, it can be seen that in these texts, innovation and ancientism can not be considered in terms of one type of language, because in these works, due to the writer, the audience, the text, one kind of language has not been used. For this reason, explanations are first given on the three types of standard language, sub-standard, and over- standard languages.
The standard language is the language of the educated and the language used in scientific, cultural or political circles (Sarlly, 2008: 49; Rrzai, 2004: 20; Najafi, 1999: seven)
The over-standard language is a type of language that is placed on the top of the imaginary line of standard language. In this language, instead of standard language words, words of ancient language, the innovation and revival of past words, metaphors, and special poetic words are used (ibid, 76).
The sub-standard language is another type of language that falls under the imaginary line of standard language. Some have limited the language of the sub-standard to the folk language, and it is considered to be the language of the low society groups, marginalized, uneducated, and even antisocial groups (the same: 76 and 77). Najafi in Dictionary of folk Persian, in addition to popular language, also speaks the colloquial language as a subset of the language group and below the standard language line (Najafi, 1999: six).
In the parts that the characters describe, the language is a sub-standard type. The following are some examples: The following examples are from the following statement: "As I gaze at the ceiling" (Bakhtiari, 2011: 11); "I was thinking with myself"(ibid., 19); "I was too tired" (ibid. 148); "The mother and father underestand why I chained myself to the lesson" (the same: 31); "But they did not care" (Rahimi, 2009: 96); "Roll out over soils" (Sepehri, 1391: 305) ; "I will shoot a tissue paper in a bucket" (Bakhtiari, 2011: 16); "reticence of the director in that position puzzled him" (Abad, 1393: 84).
The narrator's language in this memoir, for simplicity, has a more sub-standard approach, but in parts, it is standardized. Here are some examples: “The more we went from Mosul, it becomes warmer and warmer.” (Abad, 1393, 485); "We were accustomed to say the necessary things slowly "(Sepehri, 2014: 249); "We came by the water, and we saw the place where we should entere the water and the side of our movement" (ibid: 539); I felt my face was burning" (Zarabizadeh, 1393: 33); "I was asked to write a story of Nahj al-Balagha" (Kazemi, 2010). : 71); "If you please, I will take you to my wife's family house" (Hosseini, 1392: 605).
It is worth mentioning that sometimes due to the use of metaphors or enumeration, the language is approaching the over-standard. For example, a writer may use poetry in his remarks, which in this case, the language deviates from the standard and sub-standard. Of course, the use of poetry in these kinds of languages is a kind of highlighting: "He put the peach sweater that he had made for you, on his face, and throw soil on his head and reads:
They called you yousof, so gave you to wolf
Death become your wplf, my yousof
And he said with a groan, where is my sister? Where is my mother?" (Abad, 2014: 417).
"She had a beautiful face. He had a bloody diarrhea. He was yellow and skinny.”
"I'm going to die for my heart death I'm sad with sorrow for my dearest»
This poem was about the martyr Beheshti" (Bakhtiari, 2007: 332).
"Because we wanted to go to the right path, because we loved the right and were guided by that path and by that love: "You walk in this road and do not ask anything Right will tell you, how to go”
And this matter was tangible for us and we felt it "(Kazemi, 2010: 205). Of course, this poem is from Attar, and its original principle was: "You walk on the road and dont ask anything, and the road will tell you how to go" (Attar, 1358: 93).
"This time, what a pleasant mantra, they read: Caravan passes by the purple flowersits ambassador is the young martyr ... This song reminds me of the children of the revolver of Bilal" (Makhdoomi, 2008: 142).
With regard to these points and considering different types of language, it is advisable to consider the type of language in order to examine the types of lexical innovations; as, for example, the use of rhetoric in language may create the notion that, with the use of rhetorical techniques, the language goes away from the standard and approaches the over-standard language; but it should be noted that some rhetorical techniques are far from this feature; for example, the use of the irony in the sub-standard language is a natural subject, and even using a lot of irony can be a feature of this type of language; For example, the following examples can be used to say that the use of irony, not only does not close the language to the over-standard, but is based on the following characteristics of the language, but is a feature of sub-standard language: "I was up all night,waiting" (Zarabizadeh, 2011: 46); "As if nothing happen" (the same as: 118); "I couldn’t calm down" (ibid, 99); "I had been tired, too long before" (The same: 94); "He will turned back with nothing" (Sepehri, 2011: 22); "he died with my first bullet" (ibid, 40).