عنوان مقاله [English]
Ta’zie, in the word, means mourning and to hold mourning ceremony for remembrance of deaths and in term refers to a kind of ritual show based on Karbala event and the martyrdom of Emams and other religious events and historical, mythologic and slangy tales and stories (Mazandaran; 1389: 101). Some researchers seek the routes of Ta’zie in pre-Islam Irainian religions, like Masaeb e Mitra, Soug e Siavash and Yadegare Zariran (refer to: Yar e Shater, 1384: 127-129) and some in mythological religion of Mesotopomia, Anatolia and Egypt (refer to:the same:130-135). The first signs of today's Ta’zie may be found in fourth and fifth century AH. From Safavieh, performance of Ta’zie becomes in a current way (Aslani, 1384:20). Ta’zie is a kind of dramatic literature in Iran which belongs to narrative form of folk literature (Gobino, 1369: 169) and so with regards to dramatic form of Ta’zie and its executive restrictions it seems that linear narration method is the most popular and sensible way to perform Ta’zie; but «in some versions of Ta’zie, there are some gooshe that are beyond original Ta’zie and to somehow show other events» (Mirshekar, 1388: 190) where happens in somewhere else. This «somewhere else» is often Karbala. So this out of main drama scenes that predicted for connecting the theme of Ta’zie to martyrdom of Imam Hossein is called «goriz to Karbala desert», Gooshe or Ta’zie (Fathalibeigi, 1370:231). This secondary Tazie can be known as an equivalent of metadrama in drama. «Metadrama is a drama in drama ... it can shift the audience from one drama to the other and to the deeper space» (Mirshekar, 1388: 89). Some researchers believe that this disrupting in narrative discourse in Tazie is exclusive, without introduction (short) and sudden; but according to article writers, shifting of scene method and creating goriz (breakout) metadrama lie in innovative using of association trick. Association in word means to call one another (Dad, 1383:123) and in psychology means mental solidarity between two or several imagination or feeling or memory that the presence of one causes stimulating the another (Pashaie, 1369:257). Association rules can be summarized in resemblance, contiguity, contrast (Pournamdarian et.al, 1388:2) and the causation ( Pour Afkari; 1373: 123) . These narrations usually happens in religous non-Ashoraie ShabihKhani, it is not clear that from when the goriz become popular in Shabihkhani (Ashourpour, 1389: 334); but the general style of goriz is almost similar in all Tazies. This means that in every proper situation that there are both neccessary tools for association and the narrative process prepares audience's mind for narration, the poet associates the whole or a part of the scene of Karbala for player and following it the audiences using an internal or external factor. Association factor will be the elements of drama, if it is external; but it should be noted that verbal narratives have an important role in scenery of Ta’zie; because the scene space is more presented by player's description; The external factors of association in extensive or compound form (singular or structural). Sometimes the association occurs for a Shabihe in mental form .This association occurs just in context and in dialog or soliloquy forms. In addition to all these facilities, in Ta’zie sometimes players perform the associated events for audience. Sometimes they narrate it through expression. But these methods are exemplary of metadrama in Ta’zie; but with expressive and dramatic methods, respectively.
In different Ta’zie the poet first tries to find a similarity point in terms of subject, character and scene and then uses the same similarity and to conduct the scene to Karbala and Imam Hossein’s martyrdom using association trick. Diffrent kinds of association are used in Ta’zie. Following species can be enumerated for association: 1- single associations (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: water; Ta’zie of Imam Zein Ol Abedin martyrdom: butcher, Ta’zie of Holy Masoumeh’s death:water). 2- Compound association (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: relation of sister-brother kinship; Ta’zie of Esmaiel’s sacrificing; Ta’zie of Hamze’s martyrdom: the lifeless body of no-shade martyr in sunshine; Ta’zie of Omarebn Abd Vad: sending of Imam Ali to the battlefield by prophet and …); 3- Association with abstract association factor (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: death in roam; Ta’zie of Abdolah ebn AbdolMotaleb: death in roam); 4- Association with lexical factor (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: Hossein’s name; Ta’zie of throwing of Yousof in pit: Hossein’s name; Ta’zie of curse of parents); 5- Association based on proximity rule (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: water); 6- Association based on resemblance rule (Ta’zie of Esmaiel’s sacrificing, Ta’zie of throwing of Yousof in pit ; Ta’zie of Habil and Qabil ; Ta’zie of Mousa and Feron; Ta’zie of Emam Mousa Kazem’s martyrdom); 7- Association based on contrast rule (Ta’zie of Amrobn Qazve Ahad; Ta’zie of the birth of holy Mousa; Ta’zie of Safein and Lailatol Harir war); 8- Association with mental factor (Ta’zie of Emam Reza’s martyrdom: salutation to Emam Hossein’s holy shrine when martyrdom; Ta’zie of throwing of Yousof in pit; Ta’zie of Emam Ja’efar Sadeq’s martyrdom).