عنوان مقاله [English]
Simile which is an important tool of literary creation can be regarded as the most significant element of expression used in reflection of experiences, beliefs, and thoughts of a lecturer. Thus, it has always been the subject of attention by the speakers as the most commonly used and popular factor. In the present study, this fantastic element is criticized in poetry of Badr al-Din Chachi, a great poet of the 8th century. The main feature of the poetry is the numerous uses of imageries, especially simile and metaphor. In this research, which is based on the descriptive-analytical method, simile is considered as an essential part in presentation of the poet's fundamental themes. The main objective of this research is to examine the role and effect of simile in ambiguity and diminution of images in Badr Chachi's poetry. Besides, the poet's innovation and initiative in presenting fresh similes are evaluated.
Discussion and analysis
The farther is the tenor from the vehicle, the more remarkable the rate of simile. On the other hand, the more similar are the tenor and the vehicle, the less remarkable the rate of simile. Obviously, in stereotypes, the tenor is easily found in both sides of the simile, so the simile has a narrow state, whereas in new and modern similes, as far as the poet has discovered a new relationship between the tenor and the vehicle, the degree of the simile is more understandable and more figurative speech is used. Therefore, in terms of imagery, the easily- recognized similes are more valuable. The similes which are fresh and unique are usually comprehensive, that is, their vehicle is also mentioned directly since the open view of the simile may divert the reader's mind from the speaker's intended purpose. Regarding Badr's poetry, it can be said that there are a number of open-angle analogues in his poetry, which is the result of the poet's genius and innovation.
Noteworthy that any new and exotic analogies may enter into literary texts in two ways, either through the speaker's invention and creation, which can be the result of his experience and direct reception of nature or various elements of his life, or through one of the ways that can be used in modernization of stereotypical and vulgar phrases. The fact that the artist has a new perspective toward his surrounding elements can somehow reduce their familiarity. One of the most important approaches in literary criticism is defamiliarization which has a broader meaning in the works of the Russian formalists and includes all the techniques and approaches the author consciously enjoys to make the world weird to the audience. In Badr Chachi's poetry, there are also cases that indicate the poet's tendency toward rebuilding some familiar and popular images.
Simile, metaphor, irony, and quintessence are techniques that can be imaginative by themselves. Now, if some of these figurative speeches are used in conjunction with one another in a verse, it will make the reader more contemplated and understandable for understanding the correlation between images. For this reason, this simile technique causes the density and sometimes interference of images. Comparative density is one of the features that is considered to be similar to rhetoric simile. Since perceiving the proportions of each image requires time and reflection, multiple similes presented within a verse will interfere with the transmission of the message of the image. Of course, it means the simile density within a verse so that the likeness is complete both in the structural and the semantic aspects of the same verse. On the use of simile in Badr Chachi's poems, it is essential to note that in most cases, the similes do not exceed two or at most three in one verse. In a few cases, it is possible to find verse in his Diwan in which four similes are used in one verse. It should be noted that the most important reason for the ambiguity of the similes is that in some cases, the simile is linked to the metaphor. Since metaphor is more vague and intriguing than other literary figures, it has had a great impact on obscurity of images. One of the ways that can be combined along with rhetorical aesthetics to stimulate the emotions and feelings and the transference of thought and the message of the subject is to accompany the metaphor with other figures and techniques of exegesis and expression. From this viewpoint, in his poems, "Badr" has paid great attention to its arrangement through the use of a variety of innovative techniques. Hence, there is less likeness in his Diwan that with is not accompanied by one different literary figure or other forms of imagination.
Badr Chachi is one of the poets who liked to pay much attention to simile as a way to express his content. He uses a total of 1,788 similes, which compared to the total volume of 2836 verses in his Diwan, comprise a significant frequency, that is, it has used at least a simile in each two verses. He has also taken advantage of all opportunities of creating new content and expanding the figurative meanings of words, for example, similes, simile and innovation combination, and refreshment of repetitive similes. The sharp look of the poet has helped him to add numerous new similes and innovative patterns to the collection of Persian poetry. In many cases, he has also been able to defamiliarize the commonly used and popular similes. In dealing with similes, Badr Chachi has greater desire to use some especial figures among which the most favorite is simile. One of the highest frequency figures are singular to compound similes, compound innovative tenors, neighboring similes, as well as using new simile figures. Due to the poet's tendency to add up simile with other figurative and rhetoric techniques, especially metaphorical discourse, his poem's images are generally static and vague, and the reader needs to spend plenty of time to realize the associations and proportions between simile components.