عنوان مقاله [English]
Using new methods to analyze poems with particular language is a fundamental requirement. One of these methods is theory of "literary reading" in the process of interpretation of text, especially poetry, which was introduced by Michel Riffater, a French literary critic and professor of poetry in 20th century, in his book "Poem Semiotics". In his opinion, semiotic method helps reader in interpretation and analysis of metaphorical basis of texts, especially in poetry, and reveals hidden semantic layers for him or her. Although Riffater′s method isn′t true in all kinds of poetry especially narrative, it would be helpful in certain types of poetry, especially lyric poems, in our own literature.
Here reader travels to mental background of writer or poet through considering level of manifestation of metaphors, conventional poetry′s interpretations and beliefs, hi or her own poetry metaphors and beliefs, exploring semantic infrastructure of text and the magic of vocabulary alignments. He also finds out underlying layers of text, thereby analyzing complex and obscure text.
Because Bidel's poem is always associated with consecutive deviation from norms and systematic rules, and through accumulation of lexical and cluster combinations, surprises readers with new metaphor, interpretation of his poems can be a model for explaining poet's plan and mental coherence. This method forces reader to reflect about Bidel's poetry and find new implications of his poetry. This process advances reader mathematically and systematically, and through hypograms, he or she understands and receives final matrix of poetry. Also, by this kind of reading of Bidel sonnet, we can reach the predominant structure in most of his sonnets.
Hypogram is a picture connoisseur of poetry in minds of reader and presents central concept of poetry in colorful, widespread, strange and unfamiliar clothes. In fact, hypograms are the key issues of a poem, and poetry matrix is compiled through collecting hypograms.
Matrix is the dominant meaning of a piece of poetry and the fundamental proposition of poetry and the roots of the hypograms, which gradually develops in the reading of poetry in the mind of audience, but practically does not exist in poetry and produces poetry hypograms . Matrix exists as an inanimate soul in semantic context of poetry and shows itself behind all the metaphors and poetic images, leading to unity and integrity of poetry.
The process of Riffater′s interpretation can be summarized as follows: 1. reading text for regular reception; 2. highlighting elements that look unusual and preventing a conventional interpretation; 3. discovering hypograms or unclear parts in texts; and, 4. finding a matrix of hypograms that is a sentence or word and can produce hypograms and text.
By reflecting on matrix of sonnet and finding hypograms, one can conclude that all verses serve a single basis and inner meaning. With discovery of various types of hypograms, one can find a correlation between words of sonnet and unique message of poet, and it helps in interpretation of other similar poetries. In this study, for the first time, we have applied theory of Riffater in understanding Bidel Dehlavi poetry. In the process of interpreting a sonnet of Bidel, we reached hypograms such as distress, tears in the time of dawn, retreat, apologies, love and moving and understanding inner of human, all of which had a mystical meaning and thus we arrived at the matrix of "excellence and reaching God." This matrix is seen in the background of most of Bidel's sonnets.
Investigating resurrection of vocabularies in Bidel's poem would remove stain of failure from Persian language. Combining parts of a sonnet showed perfect power of Persian language and ability of Bidel in combining words. In the end, we must say that in interpretation of Persian poetry, which is an unfamiliar space, this method can be used. But, still remains a big space for such studies concerning adapting theory of Riffater to other Persian poems. It is hoped that we have taken a step in this direction.