شگردها و فنون زبانی و بلاغی تضمین‌ شعر فارسی در کتاب کلیله‌و‌دمنه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

نثر فنی بیش از آن‌که در اندیشة معنا باشد، به آرایش کلام می‌اندیشد و برای تزیین کلام از ظرافت‌های زبانی و بلاغی بسیاری بهره می‌گیرد. یکی از این ظرافت‌های زبانی و بلاغی، تضمین شعر در خلال نثر است. در کتاب کلیله‌ودمنه که از شاهکارهای نثر فنّی است، تضمین شعر از نظر کمّی و کیفی جایگاه ویژه‌ای دارد. نصرالله منشی کوشیده است با بهره‌گیری از شیوه‌ها و شگردهای زبانی و بلاغی، پیوندی استوار بین اشعار تضمینی و متن برقرار کند؛ به‌گونه‌ای که ناهمگونی بین اشعار تضمینی و متن کتاب کمتر دیده می‌شود. این مقاله با شیوه‌ای توصیفی‌تحلیلی کوشیده است رمزوراز موفقیت نصرالله منشی را در تضمین اشعار بررسی کند و شگردهای زبانی و ظرافت‌های بلاغی او را در به‌کارگیری اشعار معرفی کند. پژوهش حاضر نشان می‌دهد منشی در تضمین اشعار، همواره جانب فصاحت و بلاغت کلام را رعایت کرده است؛ به‌گونه‌ای که می‌توان در محل پیوند شعر و نثر در کتاب کلیله‌ودمنه شاهد ظرافت‌های زبانی و آرایش‌های کلامی و بلاغی بسیاری بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Methods and Techniques of Linguistic and Rhetoric in the Quotation of Persian Poetry in Kalileh and Demneh

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yahya Kardgar 1
  • Akbar Golabian 2
1 Associated Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
2 Ph. D. Student of Persian Language and Literature, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Technical prose is more than the meaning in the thought of the arrangement of the word, and uses a lot of rhetorical delusions to decorate the word. One of these linguistic and rhetorical delicacies is the guarantee of poetry during prose. Among the more than 240 verses that are implicated by Nasr ol-Lah Monshi, more than seventy percent has been chosen from odes. Abundant usage of the ode form is very common because it was the prevailing form of poetry before the seventh century.
In Kalileh, which is a masterpiece of technical prose, the quote poetry has a unique position in terms of quality and quantity. Nasr ol-Llah Monshi, has quote poetries and verses in all stories of Kalileh and Demneh. The relation between poetry and prose in this book is such that the reader does not feel any jump between the prose and the quote poem. It seems that the entire work, including poetry and prose, is written in an integrated form and by a person. He has various methods that using the quote poetry does not hurt the linguistic integrity of the text. One of the most important ways that Nasr ol-Lah has utilized to create and maintain this harmony is making minor changes in the poems of the poetries. In other words, he has created small changes in some quote poetries that are not capable to quotation in the text without changes to increase the harmony between his own text and the other’s poetries to the best. Of course, all the changes in the quote poetries in Kalileh cannot be known deliberately or in order to the maintenance of the integrity of the text. Linguistic changes created in the quote verses, as compared to the poet’s books, can be due to reasons such as the difference of copies, the carelessness of the scribes, making the coordination with the prose or the presentation of the poetries from the writer's memory without referring the original books of the poets. The changes in the quote verses and hemistiches are at the level of the vocabulary and increase or decrease the conjunctions and prepositions.
Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has tried to use a variety of linguistic and rhetorical techniques to maintain a strong link between quote poetry and his text. In such a way that we see less of the heterogeneity between quote verses and the text of the book. In Kalileh, the verses and hemistiches are quoted from poets such as Sanaayi, Masoud Saad, Abu al-Faraj Rouni, Amir Moezi, Farrokhi Sistani, Osman Mokhtari, Kasayi, Abu Saeed Abu al-Khair, Onsori, Masoudi Razi. Among the more than ten poets whose poems are quoted in Kalileh, Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has used the Sanayi poetry more than the other poets.
Undoubtedly, there is a certain difficulty to make connections between the quote poetry and the prose. The author of the prose must be so dominant in poetry and prose that he can put them together in such a way that it is not inappropriate for the reader. Perhaps this is the reason why the authors of technical prose use most of the quote poems in the role of parenthesis in the prose sentences. But sometimes the link between the quote verses and the text of the book is such that they can be placed in various grammatical roles. Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has used quote verses and hemistiches in various grammatical roles that created the most artistic and perfect kind of the quotation in the technical prose. One of the most commonly used roles that the quote poetries in Kalileh and Demneh have, is object role. Approximately thirty of the quote verses have been used in this role and have increased the richness of technical prose. In the Kalileh and Demneh, there are quote verses that are used in adverb role. The similarity of this adverbs with many of Kalileh and Demneh verses, is that they are parenthesis sentence and their probabilistic elimination from the main sentence, does not make any problem in the concept of sentence. The adverbs that are used in Kalileh and Demneh are all adverb of state.
In addition to the variety of grammatical roles of the quote verses, there is also a strong rhetorical link with prose. The types of the rhetorical link of the quote poetries with the text are very extensive. Since the enhancement of the impact of the text on the reader is one of the main concerns of the authors of technical prose, Nasr ol-Lah Monshi with full understanding of this point, has tried to adhere to rhetorical elegances in the quotation of the poetry. Hence, in applying poetry, there are many rhetorical elegances in the text. What is evident in the quote verses in Kalileh and Demneh is their rigorous selection and arrangement rhetorically. Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has followed all the principles of eloquence and rhetoric, and in addition to the great care in choosing the poetries from the point of view of content, some other points such as poems forms and even their meter have been paid special attention. From the factors of the stability of this connection can be mentioned to rhetorical arguments, confirmation and emphasis on fictional thoughts, descriptions and exaggeration. However, the dominance of tendency to the destiny in the era of the translation of the book, has decreased tendency to the reasoning. Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has often used the quote poetry to balance the arguments of the prose sections of the book.
The attraction and sweetness of poetry led to exist the quotation of the poetry for attraction of audience in most of the proses. This means that a writer such as Nasr ol-Lah Monshi with full knowledge of the position of poetry in the minds and language of his audience, uses poetry to explain the artistic ideas of his thoughts and uses the effectiveness of his poetry and its great influence in verifying his word.
One of the ways to extend and, of course, presentation the art of the writers of technical prose, is the usage of poetic descriptions in different positions. This feature can be used as a criterion for evaluating this category of works. This means that sometimes the descriptions have a decorative aspect and sometimes they add to the rhetoric of the text and affect to attract of the audience. Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has used this opportunity in the best way. So that the book's descriptions increase the effectiveness of the text on the audience.
Exaggeration, in addition to increase the poetic features of the text, is more consistent with the spirit of works such as Kalileh, which has a general audience, and the appropriate usage of this poetic technique has a lot of impact in the accompaniment of such audience with the text; because this feature active the imagination of the audience and makes him enthusiastic about accepting the thoughts of the author, and in this way becomes more enthusiastic for companionship with the author's thoughts.
This article, in a descriptive-analytical method, has tried to analysis the mystery of success of Nasr ol-Lah Monshi in the quotation of poetry and introduce the linguistic tricks and rhetorical elegances that he employed through utilizing the poetries.
 The present research shows that Nasr ol-Lah Monshi has always adhered to the eloquence and rhetoric in the quotation of poetry. So that in the place of the connection between poetry and prose in Kalileh, there are many linguistic and rhetorical elegances.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technical Persian prose
  • quotation of Persian poetry
  • Rhetoric
  • Linguistic and syntactic transcription
  • Kalileh and Demneh

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