عنوان مقاله [English]
Simile and metaphor as fundamental tools in rhetoric are the two most beautiful and highly used imagination forms that sometimes lose their novelty through time. As a result, they are removed from the list of imaginative forms and become dead similes and metaphors. So distinguished poets rewrite the similes in new forms by innovations in wording techniques and by making changes in repeated images to attract the reader's attention. By using his artistic techniques, Hafiz is one of the poets who used the best sentimental images in his poems by making some changes in common and repeated similes and metaphors. This research uses the content-analysis method to examine the different aspects of the rhetorical techniques that Hafez used to renew the similes and metaphors in his poems. This research also tries to find answers to these questions: 1. what resources does Hafez use to renew the repeated similes and metaphors? 2. Why don’t repeated similes and metaphors in poetical works of Hafiz cause boredom to the reader?
1. Rhetorical techniques of Hafiz
Hafiz has used a lot of similes and metaphors so that imagination in his poems is in a high frequency. Most of these artistic images, not only in past works but also in poetical works of the poet, are repeated and have been used a lot. These images have been used too much that Shamisa calls them dead similes and apparent metaphors, and Homaei refers to them as rejected similes but with his active insight, and keen sensitive sight, Hafiz used his great imagination power to create new pictures from among repeated and common similes and metaphors. He also impressively combines literary terms to create special artistic textures that make his poems illustrative and dramatic; In a way that repeated images in his poems are not only by no means cliché and vulgar but rather present a new style and form that touch the readers’ heart. He uses all the resources of language and art in his depictions and has different unique methods in using these images and depictions. The following are nine rhetoric methods that Hafez used to renew the similes and metaphors:
2.1 Renewing simile by point of similarity 2.2. Renewing by implicit simile 2.3. Simile with saying the reason. 2.4. Plural simile. 2.5. Comparative simile 2.6. Enjambment simile 2.7. Bound simile 2.8. Renewing useful metaphors. 2.9. Gathering of literary terms.
The results show that with purposeful attention, Hafez designed different types of points of similarity in repeated similes from points of similarity like comparative and dual to discover new relations among vulgar and repeated similes. In this way, he renewed the images which affected the reader. He also makes the readers' mind to search for the meaning by using types of implicit similes in the form of bound and limitation, and by using rhetorical appositive which causes ambiguity in the poem; In this way, the images of the poem are not repeated, and by searching for the hidden semantic meaning between the words, the reader enjoys reading the poem more. Using justifying, plural, enjambment, and bound similes are other rhetorical devices of Hafez in renewing and reviving his similes by which any of them created new atmospheres and poetic images.
By using a lot of comparative similes in different structures and also using implicit, negative, rich, bound and justifying similes and also personification, etc., Hafiz not only renews repeated similes and changes the point of view but also creates new atmospheres so that the reader revels in reading the poem. Poet's genius is completely obvious in renewing common and repeated metaphors by using innovative and familiarized attributive compounds and sometimes by using rhetorical appositions and also explaining adjectives in the form of a sentence in a way that the metaphors are not vulgar and repeated but eloquent. It seems it is the first time they appear in his poem. Moreover, by combining several literary terms, the poet makes a strong relation and a deep link in the artistic texture of the poem. This issue shows the profundity, creativity, and unique art of the poet. By doing this, common similes and metaphors from among all those images seem innovative, new, and beautiful.