عنوان مقاله [English]
The literature of any nation is influenced by its culture and social beliefs, and the impact of society on literature is certain. Women as half of the body of human society in various forms such as a woman in her own kind, mother, daughter, beloved, and praising of GOD, reflected in the literature, and many speakers for this the article have paid. Hence, one of researcher areas is the views of poets and writers about woman and examining the way they look in this category. From this perspective the article aims to examine the verses that spoken about woman. It has been concluded that there are many verses in the Shahname that do not have a positive view about woman, and in contrast to the verses that some scholars have considered to be philogynic, indeed it’s not the fact and Firdawsi has considered the epic atmosphere.
One of the most basic accessories is an exaggeration. Some women had to be talked about in a way that made them look unusual and so-called super-female. Another part of the verses from which the women were thought to be praiseworthy is, in fact, a description of the beauty of her mistress. Mentioning this point in our literature, a lover is described in the expression of beauty, not philogyny; the praiseworthy women were in verses called as suspicious. Another pathetic feature of the verses about the philogynic verses is the selective view and not paying attention to the totality of the woman. In the present study, contrary to the opinion of some researchers, it has been concluded that looking at a woman in the Shahname is a negative view.
In the book of The double study of praise and condemnation of language in Shahname by Hussain Sajjadi, he has chosen adventures in which language plays an active role and verses have been written about them. Sajjadi has more described the verses or it is batter to say that solved the versification.
In the book of The origins of misogyny in Classical Persian Literature by Maryam Hosseini, she examines the poems of several poets, Firdawsi, and at the end, despite the existence of many verses that do not have a positive view of a woman, she has concluded that Firdawsi is in favor of philogyny, not misoginy.
The article of misogynic verses in Shahname by Abolfazl Khatibi: A useful 8-pages article that adds 8 misogynic episodes and confirms 10 more with authenticity and originality, they consider them misogynic.
Article of ”Personality analysis and language role in Shahname stories” by Ali Naqi Hussain in which the author states that the purpose of the article is to analyze the personality of the women and their role in advancing the story.
Discussion and Research
The misogynic sections of the Shahname can be divided into several categories:
-Verses that refer to women as type: in other words, women in ensemble and general desired; in this group wife, daughter is located.
-Bad traits verses for women counted.
-Verses in which women are weak and in children row and old considered.
-Verses that have been used as tools by women.
In this study verses that are considered praiseworthy also reviewed and concluded that some of those verses are necessary for one epic poem and not in the direction of women praise; another part is the symmetry of selective tastes that have not been considered in the whole narrative; as a sample of surrounded narration speaks of her bravery and brilliance but her betrayal with husband and his murder not mentioned in words, or they talk about it, but they silence the released child in the water for fear of seizing the throne.
Other praiseworthy female sections in Shahname include the following:
-Praiseworthy created special women like shahs relative and like national hero’s.
-Stories of praiseworthy women taken by the literature another nation.
Both groups in this study example of praiseworthy women not considered, but in Shahname praiseworthy women verses existed; for example, a Gazer woman pulls her baby out of the water; Description that about Sindokht spouse water has come; and even about Soodabeh which is one of the worst faces of Shahname, the existence of anti-feminist verses and Soodabeh before the story of Siawash, in faithful with her husband praised. But if we want to put both anti-feminist and praiseworthy women verses on the pan scale, the praiseworthy women are lighter and third lyrics anti-feminism will be higher. In Short words, we should say Shahnameh's work had a negative view of women.