عنوان مقاله [English]
Rouhani's travelogues are examples of literary works in which the author travels to another world as a result of a dream, dream or ascension, and expresses the results of her observations after returning from this journey. This type of work is considered one of the oldest literary genres and there are examples in religious works related to Zoroastrian and Jewish religions. This example of works, like other works, in addition to having literary and rhetorical effects, has other significant manifestations and effects. In addition to rhetorical and literary functions, the functions of these works can be divided into four categories. These four categories include the following:1) mystical functions; 2) religious functions; 3) socio-political functions and 4) psychological functions.
Regarding the mystical function of these works, it should be said that these works are the product of an inner and psychic process reflected in the form of a literary work. In the process, the spiritual traveler must clear her sensual dust and reach the level of "emptying," that is, emptying herself of the ungodly. This discharge is sometimes in the form of crying and drinking wine, which are symbols of emptying. This evacuation prepares her to ascend to the higher world. After the first stage, the spiritual traveler fills the empty container of her existence with the truths of the higher world in the same spiritual world and reaches the "beauty" world. After this stage, the spiritual seeker finds the necessary conditions to understand the true lover, and the beloved appears to her, and sometimes the seeker remains in the place of annihilation and does not return to the world of the body.
However, regarding the religious function of these works, it should be said that most of these works are written at a time when the religious items that the spiritual traveler believes in have become worthless. For this reason, the authors try to revive and propagate their religious foundations; a religion whose principles are not observed in the author's intended society. Another thing that is religiously evident in these works is the Evangelism and warning of the readers of these works. Describing hell and the torments in it is to frighten those who do not observe religious matters. Mentioning the atmosphere of the heaven and its joys is also good news for those who believe in religion and its principles.
The socio-political functions of these works are also noteworthy. In many of these works, the authors critique the social, political, cultural foundations, and customs of their society and consider the causes of society's misery in the same mentioned factors. Sometimes the factors of power and government are criticized. In general, political suffocation is one of the main reasons for the emergence of spiritual travelogues. Mentioning the corruption of government elements and criticizing and punishing them in these works is sometimes reflected.
Another important function of these works is the psychological functions. The traveler uses psychological mechanisms to get out of this closed space due to the closed social or political space. She uses both "escape" and "displacement" mechanisms to separate her closed space. On the other hand, these works indicate that the authors of these works seek their suppressed desires and aspirations in dreams or spiritual journeys.
In the end, it should be said that the study of aspects other than the literary aspects in these works can be examined and useful.