یکی از مؤلفههای مطرح در روایتشناسی، تحلیل ساختار و طرح رمان است؛ در این پژوهش، طرح رمان تنگسیر براساس نظریات تودروف و گریماس تحلیل شده است. رمان تنگسیر براساس زمان خطی داستانی گسترش مییابد و حوادث یکی پس از دیگری برای شخصیت زایرمحمد بهصورت زنجیروار به وجود میآیند. آغاز داستان وضعیت متعادل برقرار است؛ چون زایرمحمد مردی زحمتکش است که در بندر دکان جوفروشی دارد، سپس با بروز حادثهای، این وضعیت دچار روند تغییر میشود؛ کریم حاجحمزه و دارودستهاش سرمایه و دارایی وی را به امانت میگیرند و خرج میکنند و وضعیت نامتعادل بر رمان حاکم میشود. بعد از ذکر حادثهها، روایت به وضعیت متعادل سامانیافتهای میرسد و پایان مییابد؛ او بعد از کشتن کریم و همپیمانانش از بوشهر فرار میکند. براساس الگوی گریماس، شناسنده: زایرمحمد، موضوع شناسایی: گرفتن حق خود از دیگران، گیرنده: زایرمحمد و فرستنده: احساس درونی وی، یاریگر: شهرو، آساتور، احساس وی و...؛ مخالف: کریم حاجحمزه، شیخ ابوتراب، محمد گندهرجب و آقا علیکچل هستند.
روش پژوهش حاضر از حیث گردآوری دادهها، توصیفی ـ اسنادی و با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی انجام شده است. پس از تحلیل عنصر طرح روایی در رمان تنگسیر میتوان گفت ساختار طرح این رمان با نظریة تودروف و گریماس منطبق است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Narratological Reading of Choubak's Tangsir
One of the frequently-discussed issues in narratology is the analysis of the structure and the plot of the novel which embarks on deconstructing the old texts. Anchored in the ideas of Tudorv and Grimas, this research endeavors to analyze the narratological structure of Tengsir penned by Sadegh Choubak. Tangsir develops linearly on the temporal storyline; therefore, the events occur consecutively in a chain-like fashion for Zayer Mohammad. At the starting point, the situation is depicted to look normal in that Zayer Mohammad is a hardworking man working at Dehkan Harbour. Then, the situation changes with an incident. Karim Hajj Hmzayi borrowed all Zayer Mohammad's properties and refused to return them, pervading a sense of imbalanced situation throughout the novel. All the incidents being unfolded, the narrative ends with a balanced state in the novel. Zayer Mohammad kills Karim and his accomplices and then escapes to Bushehr. According to the pattern of Grimes, Zayer Mohammad is an identifier and the subject of identification involves taking his right from others. In the same vein, Zayer Mohammad is also the receiver and his internal emotion plays the role of a sender. The helpers are portrayed to be Shahro and Asator as well as his feelings. The opposition is comprised of Karim Hajji Hmaze, Sheikh Abu Torab, Mohammad Gonde-Rajab and Aqa Al-Kachal. Regarding data collections, the present study is a descriptive-documentary one conducted using content analysis. Analyzing the elements of narrative design in Tangsir, it can be said that the structure of the novel is in line with the theory of Todorov and Grimas.
Tangsir develops based on a linear storytime (chained). The events of Zayer Mohammed's personality arise one after another in that, initially, the situation appears to be normal. Subsequently, this equilibrium changes and the imbalanced situation dominates the atmosphere of the novel. Being the events unfolded, the novel's storyline turns to a well-balanced situation, and the fate of the character gets disclosed. Chubak introduces Zayer Mohammed's character to the reader in a mixed manner (direct and indirect descriptions by actions and behavior). This study attempts to analyze the narrative design of Tengsir novel based on structuralist theories such as T. Todorov and A. Grimas.
2. Discussion and analysis
Based on what Tudorff theorizes, the narrative scheme of Tengsir consists of a series of sequences. The storyline in this novel is that the events are consecutively chained to Zayer Mohammed in such a way that the situation is initially depicted as balanced (introduction) within which there are a variety of events. In the aftermath, the construed balanced situation is disturbed by an event (episode 1), and an imbalanced situation dominates the narrative context; Karim Hajzamzah and his allies borrow and invest all his wealth and assets. At this point, to accomplish his goals, Zayer Mohammad lives various hazardous experiences, including the killing of Karim Haj Hamzah and his allies, as well as coming to grapple with government officials. This creates an upward spiral of events. Describing these incidents comprises the middle of the narrative. Thereafter, with the final incident (chapter 2), the narrative text (story) comes to an end. The story of the novel returns to a well-balanced state of affairs; ending with killing Karim and his allies, Zayer Mohammad escapes from Bushehr with his family.
In what follows, we shall examine the narrative elements in Tangsir based on the theory of Grimes. Identifiers (active, hero): Zayer Muhammad; value-bearing object (the subject of identification): Taking his (own right) property back from Karim and his allies; agent: Zayer Muhammad and the patient: His inner sense; Assistant: Shahro, Asator, His Feelings, the People and ... ; the Anti-agent: Karim Haj Hamzah, Sheikhabotrab, Mohammad Gonderajab and Aqa Ali Kachal and government officials (vice). In the novel, according to the schema mentioned, there are six narrative elements.
The narrative process in this novel is shaped in a way that the events are chained one after another for Zayer Mohammad (the main character), in such a way that at first the situation is represented to be balanced (introduction) and this situation involves a variety of events. In this situation, while the agentivity is introduced, a value-bearing object (target) is also identified for the identifier. Furthermore, the character is described in this part of the narrative. Zayer Mohammed (recipient and recogniser) is construed as a hardworking man who sells oat and is regarded as a value-bearing object (money and preservation of honor). In the aftermath, (chapter 1), this balance becomes chaotic an event and an imbalanced situation dominates the narrative environment. Karim and all his allies borrow and spend all Zayer's properties.
At this stage, the activist welcomes various dangers such as killing Karim Hajzamzah and his allies, struggling with government officials to achieve his goals (value-bearing object). This leads to the formation of action and reaction on the part of the patient and anti-agent causing an upward trend in the story-line. Mentioning these events as such constitutes the middle of the narrative and includes the actions and reactions of Zayer Mohammad's personality. At this stage, the identifier is examined and assisted by the assisting forces to overcome the anti-agent forces. At this point, with the final incident happened (chapter 2), the narrative (story) gets to the final phase. Being supported by Shahro, Asator and the people (the supporting forces), he succeeds in regaining his right (his money; identification) from Karim and his allies by shooting them.
The novel's story-line returns to a well-balanced state of affairs and the character finds his fate. After the events narrated, the narrative anchors in a calm shore; he escapes from Bushehr with his family after killing Karim and his allies. In the end, the general (destiny) status is determined in the event of victory or defeat, and the story obtains a new stable state that is the product of the patient and past events interplay. Finally, we can draw the following diagram for the structural analysis of the narrative plot of Tengsir: Initial balance (introducing the agent and Value-bearing object) + disturbance of the equilibrium (episode 1) - introduction: the imbalanced status (examining the patient and his battle with anti-agent and the use of supporting forces) + latest confront of the agent and anti-agent (…..2) - Middle; re-occurrence of the balanced status (the final phase the materialization of the patient's destiny) that a new stable state comes to the surface.