ازآنجاکه داستان به جزئیات و توصیف واقعیات میپردازد، میتوان مهمترین مسائل اجتماعی مربوط به پشت جبهه را در این نوع ادبی استخراج و تحلیل کرد. برای این کار، چهار اثر داستانی دفاع مقدس ازجمله رمان «زمین سوخته»، «سوران سرد»، «دا» و «یکشنبه آخر» انتخاب شده و تفاوت نگرشهای مردانه و زنانه به مسائل اجتماعی در آنها بررسی و تحلیل شده است. دلیل انتخاب این آثار، تأثیرات مختلف جنگ در زندگی اجتماعی و فردی آنها و توجه بسیار به مسائلی چون ازجمله عزاداری برای شهیدان، ویرانی شهرها، کمبود امکانات، احتکار، گرانی، دزدی و... است. هدف این پژوهش، تحلیل مهمترین مسائل اجتماعی پشت جبهه در نمونههایی از رمانها و داستانهای دفاع مقدس با بیان تفاوتهای دیدگاههای مردانه و زنانه دربارة این مسائل است. این پژوهش به شیوة کتابخانهای و به روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی انجام گرفته است. پس از تحلیل آثار منتخب پژوهش و یاریگرفتن از منابع گوناگون تخصصی در حوزة پایداری، یافتههای پژوهش حاکی از آن است که بهدلیل فضای جنگ و برهمخوردن تعادل اجتماعی، میتوان ذکر کرد که جنگ تبعات اجتماعی فراوانی برای مردم مرزنشین و درگیر جنگ داشته است. نویسندگان بنابر جنسیت و نوع نگرش، هرکدام به ابعاد خاصی از تأثیرات جنگ بر زندگی مردم مناطق جنگی نظر داشتهاند. محمود و افهمی بیشتر به توصیف مسئله خیانت، گرانی و دزدی پرداختهاند. حسینی و رامهرمزی به موضوع انتقاد از مسئولان، خیانت و کمبود امکانات توجه کردهاند. نگرش مردان به عزاداری، تکیهبر تحریک مردم برای حضور در جبهه و تشییع پیکر شهیدان و نگرش زنان، بیشتر بر برانگیختن احساسات و گریهکردن برای شهیدان است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Social analysis of four holy defense stories: a comparison between the authors’ perspectives in terms of their gender
Describing details and realities, fiction contributes to extracting and analyzing the social issues which are concerned, in one form or another, with behind the front in the literary works. In so doing, the authors embarked upon analyzing four fictive works, including The Burnt Ground, The Cold Suran, Da, and The Last Sunday, to examine the perspectives of male and female writers towards the social issues. The rationale lying behind opting for these works is that on the one hand these works widely address various impacts of war on social and individual life and, on the other, they cast a careful look at certain issues such as mourning for the martyrs, the devastation of cities, paucity of facilities, hoarding, price-gouging, and robbery.
The present study, thus, is aimed at analyzing the paramount issues of behind the front in certain literary works representing the literature of the holy defense to investigate the differences between male and female writers in taking these issues into account. This research was conducted using library resources and employing a descriptive-analytical approach. The findings of the study indicated that the holy war had brought about socially and individually consequential impacts due to the war condition and nonequilibrium social status. Given the gender-specific perspectives, the writers have taken into account particular aspects of the war impacts. Mahmood and Afhami have addressed betrayal, price gouging, and robbery.
Hosseini and Ramehr-Ramzi have emphasized criticizing the authorities, betrayal, and paucity of facilities. The male writers' perspectives towards mourning are for the most part relied on instigating and motivating the people to be enlisted for service in war and participate in the funeral of martyrs. This is whilst female writers have mainly focused on emotional instigation and crying for martyrs.
Besides dealing with the war affairs and the fight on the battlefield, the Holy Defence Literature (HDL) takes into account the destructions, dilapidations of war, bombardments, behind-the-front slaughter, inflation, robbery, poverty, and further socio-economic issues. In selected literary works, the authors embark upon mulling over social issues such as mourning for martyrs, robbery, poverty, betrayal, espionage, destruction, chaos in cities, the paucity of facilities, high expenses, inflation, etc. This study also seeks to investigate the dominant characteristics of behind the front issues in four fictive works, including The Burnt Ground, The Cold Suran, Da, and The Last Sunday. This study takes on to examine the social problems behind the front from the perspectives of male and female writers towards these issues.
2. Analysis and discussion
2-1. Analyzing behind the front social issues in the select literary works
2-1-1. Holding mourning ceremonies for the holy defense martyrs
War disorganizes and disturbs the dominant social orders. Undoubtedly, the lack or collapse of regulating orders leads to social disintegration and critically jeopardizes social solidarity. However, certain practices and events may contribute to strengthening the bonds of social solidarity. One of the practices and events that is rife amongst different societies and religions is to mourn for the martyrs. The novel The Cold Suran does not focus its attention on mourning for martyrs as well as the novels The Burnt Ground, Da, and The Last Sunday.
2-1-2. Destruction and chaos in cities
Of the particular features of the holy defense's literature is to describe the symptoms and negative repercussions of war such as the destruction of cities and consequently civil chaos. Not only has the civil war destroyed cities and houses of the great majority of Iranians, but also it led to the dilapidation of markets, shops, entertainment centers as well as cultural and economic structures. In its own right, this brought out great losses in the economic section of the country. The novels The Burnt Ground, The Cold Suran, Da, and The Last Sunday have equally considered this issue.
2-1-3. Criticism of the paucity of medical, military, and pharmaceutical equipment
Of social issues in the select works is to critique the paucity of medical, military, and pharmaceutical equipment in the time of war. Placing greater emphasis upon this issue sheds much light on the real circumstances in fronts, war-hit cities and camps of war-hit people, and the common perspective towards it. This idea runs through all the select works.
2-1-4. Criticism of commanders of the war and the authorities
One of the most important hallmarks of holy defense stories is to cast some critique towards the performance of the war commanders and authorities concerning the policies and decision-making on the state affairs during the war-time. Amongst the literary works introduced here, the novels The Burnt Ground, Da, and The Last Sunday have widely represented this issue.
2-1-5. Robbery, hoarding, and high expenses (people's living condition)
As one of the most significant social issues, robbery, hoarding, and high expenses are the central themes of the select works which can be regarded as the impacts of the imposed war. In these works, The Burnt Ground and Da have particularly concerned with these problems far more significantly than The Cold Suran and The Last Sunday.
2-1-6. Presenting betrayal
Another prominent social issue in the war and holy defense novels is the problem of betrayal. The Burnt Ground and Da pinpoint the betrayal of Arab Sheikhs. Allegedly, this has brought about common dissatisfaction and misrepresentation. All the select works have paid salient heed to this issue.
Analyzing the select works using descriptive-analytical methods and different technical resources in the field of holy defense fictive literature, the findings of the study indicate that the issues concerning behind-the-front events from a social perspective have been widely addressed in the four fictive works The Burnt Ground, The Cold Suran, Da, and The Last Sunday. Amongst various social issues, it can be demonstrated that mourning for martyrs, destruction, and chaos in cities, critiquing paucity of medical and military equipment, critiquing the commanders and authorities of war, addressing espionage and betrayal, robbery, hoarding, poverty, and high expenses, are of the most salient issues in the select works.
The novels The Burnt Ground and The Cold Suran address betrayal, destruction of cities, hoarding, and high expenses. This is whilst the two books Da and The Last Sunday mainly present paucity of equipment and facilities, critiquing commanders and authorities, and hoarding. Further, Mahmood and Afhami cast a sharp critique of the authorities and the state. On the other hand, Hosseini and Ramehrmazi's perspectives towards these issues realize in terms of discursive criticism. Also, The Burnt Ground depicts the robbery and the treatment of thieves to be practiced with violence and execution. The Burnt Ground and The Cold Suran reveal that hoarders are treated violently. This is represented in people's behavior regarding Kal Sha'ban and Kad Khoda. In Da and The Last Sunday, this is represented by linguistic violence in Zahra and Ma'sume's characteristics.