عنوان مقاله [English]
The literary term of contradiction has been the most controversial concept in literature. Some of the main literal and rhetorical techniques such as contradiction, confrontation, paradox, ambiguity, and probability implicit in contradictory words, failures ... are mostly based on contradiction and confrontation. In this article, which is done based on the descriptive-analytical method, with a content analysis approach, first, we review the contradiction and paradox in rhetorical books, and then we explain the application of such techniques in Molavi's 50 lyric poems. The results show that in most of the newly written rhetoric books, there are more accurate definitions and segmentations about the literal symbol of contradiction; besides, its importance has been taken into account more seriously than before, while paradox has been noticed only in some of the recent rhetorical books.
The contradictions are of high frequency in Molavi's lyric poems based on the documentary method. The relatively high use of paradox in Molavi's sonnets reflects his innate genius, creative thinking, artistic and rhetorical deep understanding of the artistic capabilities and rhetorical techniques, and is commensurate with his mystical attitude, and ecstasy. The Research process on the contradictions and paradox of the view of rhetoric books is as follows:
Introduction: the artistic and creative works of Iran and the world have been using contradiction and contrast in their foundation. Contradiction and paradox are the two most important concepts of Molavi's work that have not yet been the subject independently.
1-1. Statement of the Issue: Firstly, how have these contradictions and contradictories (paradox) been used in rhetorical books? And secondly, how did Molavi use them in Divan-e Shams in a rhetoric way?
1-2. Background Research: there had been some researches done to study contradiction and paradox such as: "Reflection of contradiction in Masnavi"; "Contradiction and its types in Persian Literature"; "Contradiction at the same time of unity"; "Study of the components of mystical paradox in Hakim Sanai's Ghazals"; "Paradox language"; "Contradictory phenomena of aesthetics"; "Paradoxical critique and analysis of historical and rhetorical process"; "Mystical experience and paradoxical expression"; "Content paradox in Persian Poetry"; but the surveys show that there has been no research yet on the role of contradiction and paradox in Divan-e Shams.
1-3. Necessity and Importance: Considering the importance of contradictions and paradox in Molavi's sonnets and the fact that these two concepts and their types in rhetorical resources, including the different species of contradiction and paradox in Molavi's ghazals, have not been discussed in the researches mentioned above, it seems like that is necessary to investigate in this regard.
1-4. Research Method: in this study, the library research method has been used, and the data collection was descriptive-analytical.
2-1. Contradiction and paradox in rhetorical books
2-1-1. Contradiction: firstly, the development of contradiction in rhetoric books is explained in a timely order from Tarjoman Al-balaghe (from the end of the 5th century) to Naghd-e Badi’ (1379). The research shows that "contradiction" has been named one of the most beautiful and efficient literary arts as tazad, motabeghe, takafu, motabegh, tabagh, etc. Rhetorical scholars believe that the basis of contradiction is the usage of contrary words. Some of them has only confined to define the meaning of paradox by providing a few examples, while others believe that "the presence of beauty" is the necessity of using this array, and some others believe that the presence of a sense of contradiction – even without using contradictory words- can be named "contradiction". Others have only mentioned examples for "contradiction" without explaining its different species. Although some scholars, especially more recent scholars, have paid more attention to explaining the various species of contradiction and their definition, divisions, and their aesthetic aspects, they divide it into a contradictory noun, verb, aphesis, opposition, the ambiguity of contradiction, eftenan, paradox and sensational.
2-1-2. Paradox: It has not been mentioned as an array in rhetoric books because it has been introduced to us by western literature.
In this article, 50 lyrical poems of Ghazaliyat by Shams-e Tabrizi have been randomly selected and studied based on the content analysis to explain the rhetorical contradiction and paradox in Molavi's sonnets. The conclusion of the study of Molavi's ghazals, based on the divisions in rhetoric books, shows that paradox has appeared in 9 ways in Molavi's ghazals. The frequency of types of contradictions in this study is as follows:
Contradiction of reversion
Contradiction of ambiguity
2-1-3. Opposition (18%): this type of contradiction has third place in Molavi’s work because his forethoughtfulness dissuades him from prejudice; in a way that he displays every aspect in addition to its contradiction.
Three half hemistich
One redoubled hemistich
Types of Opposition
Conclusion: contradiction has been more and more attractive to rhetorical scholars by the day. Most of the newly written rhetoric books have paid more attention to the divisions of contradiction, its aesthetic role, and rhetoric effect. "Contradiction” has a high frequency and different types and styles in Divan-e Shams attributed to Molavi. Every type of contradictions displays the meaningful relation between contradictions and inherent genuine, intelligence, and mystical ecstasy of the poet's mind. The paradox with 31% usage shows his mystic language.
The "explicit contradiction" with 26%, because of its persuasive nature, and the "opposition" with 18% displayed in 6 different styles, show his intelligence and creativeness. For example, using contradiction in one redoubled hemistich, the confrontation of one side of contradiction in three half hemistich with its other side in one-half hemistich causes transferring excitement and spiritual feelings to the audience that makes them more enthusiast to understand the meaning of the poem. You can say that in this regard to the opposition, one army battles with three armies. "Inexplicit" contradictions with 15% show his open and creative mind for displaying spiritual concepts.
The rest of the contradiction types are not highly frequent. This characteristic is due to that they don't give the audience help understanding the meaning. The reason for this factor can be the concepts discussed further: First of all, Molavi's great interest in the use of much contradiction rooted in his mystical and philosophical insight; Second, the widespread use of paradox is due to his mystic skepticism and the natural homogeneity of paradox with the specific language of mysticism; Thirdly, the frequent use of the "inexplicit" contradiction expresses his genius, creative mind, and literary taste, and all this is one of the factors of Molavi's sonnet's charm and verbal and spiritual value which shows the rhetoric of the contradiction in his ghazals.