عنوان مقاله [English]
The deviation technique is one of the tools for creating poetry and makes it different from natural language. When a poet goes beyond the standard form of language for more creativity, deviation emerges. According to Leech (1969), linguistic deviation happens in eight fields: lexicon, syntax, phonetics, writing, semantics, dialect, style, and time. Madhoosh is one of the contemporary poets in the Fath-Ali Sah Qajar era. He has many poems and proses not published yet. Some of his manuscripts are kept in libraries. His talent in composing a sonnet is obvious. Also, he is proficient in figurative language, artistic details, and poetry. Madhoosh, like his contemporary poets, imitated his predecessors and used their ideas in choosing themes and rhythms. He chose his poetic rhythm according to the theme. Verbal rhymes in his poems that are sometimes in question form add value to his poetry. Smooth and fluent verses, ordinary content, transferring meaning and using proper rhymes are some of his poems' features. His sonnets are full of similes, and there are a lot of metaphors, exaggerations, and allusions in his poetry. Intellectually, the theme of his sonnets is love, and his beloved is from the earth. In this aspect, he does not have a new content and only repeats his ancestors. At some points in his sonnets, he also refers to moral, philosophical, and mystical concepts, and we can see Khayyam's idea in his poetry. This study uses an analytical-descriptive method within the constructivism school framework. It aims to review different forms of deviation in Madhoosh Golpaygani's sonnets based on Leech deviation pattern. The results show that semantic deviation is the most prominent and frequent kind of deviation technique that Madhoosh Golpaygani uses in his sonnets. He also uses syntax deviation with breaking the order of linguistic self-contained elements and phonetic deviation for a better rhythm. Such kinds of deviation add more value and beauty to his poems. Time and style deviations are less than the other forms.