عنوان مقاله [English]
Earth is one of the outstanding natural objects in the Qur'an with a variety of roles. Studying the religious history of this cosmic object, researchers have found that it is of high sexual importance among several Semitic tribes and the ancient beliefs of the different regions including the Mesopotamian. Almost in all of these regions, the earth is manifested as a female being, and its gender is female.
The present study intends to examine the earth in this historical- religious context and reveal its feminine manifestations in the Quran. Finally, it discusses the earth's archetypal aspects, based on the Jungian concepts. The main questions are as following: What role does the earth play in the mythical beliefs of the Semitic tribes, and what are its main functions? What is the history of the earth's feminine roles in Semitic cultural beliefs? Can such feminine roles be traced in the Quran? If so, what are the most important manifestations of this femininity in the Quran?; and What is the message of the Qur'an in this regard?
An examination of the Qur'anic verses reveals that the Quran has taken the archetypal advantages of the earth, with its positive approach to the Anima archetype, and has found the various manifestations of the earth's femininity by notions (ideas) such as "the similarity of the woman and the tilth" (Q 2: 232).
According to the results, this archetype mainly makes humans' conscious minds to know the place of Allah in the world and distinguish His power and high position from those of the earth. In other words, such verses seek to reject the beliefs of those pagans who worshiped the earth or thought that the earth is superior to Allah.
The Quranic hint at mythological beliefs on the similarity of “the woman and the field” (farm), on the one hand, is to emphasize the sanctity of marriage, introduce it as a religious ritual and then pay attention to its spiritual purpose, and on the other hand, is to advise better communication with women, that is, a proper, pleasant and harmless sexual relationship.