عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of the present study was to survey the styles and meaning representation in Anwar Soheili with respect to the point that the technical prose writer has utilized different styles and literary devices for the representation of their intended meaning. These styles and meaning representation in Anwar Soheili were surveyed under three sections: structural (anecdote, dialogue, classification), descriptive (reasoning, definition and interpretation, and study of the reason and results), documentary (reference to verses and sayings, recitation of other words). The study was descriptive and analytical one and use library sources.
Keywords: Technical prose, Anwar Soheili, Rhetoric, Structure, Description.
Poets and writers apply different styles and literary devices for representing their intended meaning. It is different style which differentiates poets and writers from each other. By this way, it can be inferred that when two or several poets or writers have got a similar meaning or concept, the one is superior which transfers the concept or meaning properly. The rhetoric is also very important in literature. Some critics believe that meaning is not so important in literature, rather its representation is paramount. In other words, in literature, what is said is not important, but how is said is much more important than it. It is different interpretations that illustrate the worth of an artistic work. In this study, we try to answer to this question “what kind of literary styles and devices has Molla Vaez Kashefi used in his book ‘Anwar Soheili’?” In order to answer this question, we have used an analytical approach for the analysis of data.
Literary Styles for the representation of meaning in Anwar Soheili
2.1 Styles and Structural devices for representation of meaning
Anecdote: This kind of story-telling (narrative as Anwar Soheili) originally from Indiaan literature takes place through a story within another story. The foundation or originality of narratives (story) narrated in Anwar Soheili is based on this fact that Danshilim, an Indian counsel, had got a will from king Houshang, which contains fourteen wills and Bidpai Hakim narrates a story for each will for the Indian counsel. It is, entirely, fourteen anecdotes and fourteen narratives.
Dialogue: A conversation or interaction which takes place between two persons or it occurs or envisages in mind of a person due to a literary work ( a narrative, drama, poem, and …) is called a dialogue (Mirsadeghi 1392 A.H., 2013 A.D, p. 466). Dialogue is one of styles which Vaez Kashefi has employed for representing meaning or concept; certainly, in Anwar Soheili like other Persian anecdotes the dialogue is a part of a narration and it is not isolated from the story world. This dialogue style was used in Anwar Soheili in four poems: 1. Common dialogue, 2. Controversy, 3.question and answer, and 4. Internal monologue
Classification: The author of Anwar Soheili has classified the organization of the book for representing his intended meaning so that he conveniently and fluently places or transfers the intended meaning or message in the mind of reader. The author, sometimes, cites the words from other philosophers and scholars in the classified form. In some cases, he cites them in the language of the story characters; meanwhile in most cases the author numerically highlights the classification.
2.2 Descriptive Styles and devices for representation of a meaning
a. Reasoning: The reasoning of Vaez Kashefi has a guiding, instructing and educating effect due to the literariness and subject matter of his work. For this purpose, he applies the reasoning strategy for convincing the readers and increasing the credibility of his words. His style of narrating is in this way that he cites a subject; if it requires any reasoning, he will add a reasoning sentence by applying the conjunction words as ‘that’, ‘what’, and ‘because of’. These reasoning sentences serve as complement for other sentences. For example: I wish I would travel around the world for a while….because we witness a lot of strange phenomena and get a lot of experience (p.75).
b. Surveying the causes and results: With respect to the subject, background and content of the book, the surveying of the causes and results in Anwar Soheili has an instructing and educating effect on the readers and the author has applied this strategy for convincing his words and influencing the reader. For example: in his belief a great number of inartistic persons and their intrinsic enmity with artistic persons leads to the prevalence of inartistic persons on the artistic ones (p.169).
c. Definition and Interpretation: The definition and interpretation style applied in Anwar Soheili is originated from the literary talent and taste of the author. He employs this style for representing his intended meaning or message. By this way, he has reflected his view on the different subjects originating from his talent and taste. For example, the definition of the word “ جود” (munificence) in the following sentence ‘Joud’ means the noblest and most perfect morality and is one of the most excellent attributes of Almighty God (p.64).
d. Description: Vaez Kashefi as one of the writers of technical prose has applied the descriptive style, but the main distinctive feature of his descriptive style which distinguishes him from other writers of technical prose is that his description is short and it is not more than two analogies as description of ‘spring’ in the following sentence: “In the feet of the mountain, there was a blue spring like a new face of rose-cheeked and a sweetness like a mouth uttering attractive words.
3.2. Documentary Styles of Representation of Meaning
a. Referring to Quranic verses and saying of Imams, Vaez Kashefi like other writers of technical prose has referred to Quranic verses and Imams’ sayings for the representation of proper meanings and influencing the readers. In order to prove and rearrange his words he frequently refers to Quranic verses and sayings with different styles and strategies.
b. Embodiment: The insertion and embodiment of poems in the prose are the main characteristics which grasp the attention of the writer of technical prose. This feature has been applied in Anwar Soheili. The author has applied many poems in his prose as embodiment in comparison with the similar books. He referred to the poems for clarifying and emphasizing his intended meaning.
e. Quoting others’ words: Vaez Kashefi in his Anwar Soheili has also referred frequently to others’ words for representing his intended meaning. By this way, he has nourished his view by using their words in his book.
In Anwar Soheili, the different literary styles and devices for conveying the intended meaning and message has been used which are as following: a). structural organization including anecdote, dialogue, and classification i.e., the subject matters are presented in the form of dialogue, classification for transferring meaning. b). Description including reasoning, definition, interpretation, description, surveying the causes and results. c). Documentary, including, referring to Quranic verses and sayings and citation of others’ words.