عنوان مقاله [English]
This study investigates the use of words and collocations with the same meanings as well as the use of Pahlavi and ancient words in the two works of Shahnameh and Vis and Rāmin. The results reveal that the similar lexical characteristics of the two works reflect the influence of Shahnameh on Weiss and Ramin in terms of linguistic techniques. Another point is the congruence of the terms used in these two works with the form and content. This can be understood from the use of words that are in line with the music of the word on one hand, and linked to ritualistic practices and beliefs of the poets on the other.
One of the issues that could be investigated about Shahnameh is the language of Shahnameh and its characteristics. This research attempted to compare Vis and Rāmin by Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, which is similar to Shahnameh in terms of style and language. This literary work is the oldest available poetic collection in Persian literature. It is a story belonging to the Arsacid period in the Pahlavi language, which has been put into poetry through preserving the meanings and words. This work, just like the Shahnameh, is simple and fluent in terms of diction and expression, with few Arabic words but filled with authentic and l Pahlavi words.
1-1 Statement of the problem
By closely reading Shahnameh and Weiss and Ramin, we find that there are many linguistic similarities in these two works. There are similar vocabulary and collocations as well as analogous theme and expression in the two works. The authors of this study have tried to answer this question by studying Shahnameh, and Vis and Rāmin: What are the similarities between the two works in terms of the use of vocabulary and collocations?
1-2 Research Significance
Since Shahnameh and Vis and Rāmin are considered to have the most original words and linguistic collocations. On the other hand, both of these works involve many of the rituals and beliefs of the ancient Iranian ethnic groups. This research, will introduce the two works and their linguistic values. It will give the Iranian readers access to a valuable part of the Persian language.
1-3 Research Background
We could not find any previous study on the language structure Vis and Rāmin and Shahnameh's, but similar articles and theses have been presented. Most studies address Shahnameh's linguistic characteristics.
Shahnameh has given us a special strength for our body of culture and language. Vis and Rāmin is also among the top Persian literary works in terms of having original Persian words. Its similarity with Shahnameh can be a sign of the linguistic connection of two works. In the context of language, the correct investigation of the features mentioned in the following section illustrates the link between these two works:
2-1 Language characteristics
2-1-1 Common terms in two works
More than noting the rhetoric and the fictional power of the words, the two poet have paid attention to originality and their ability to convey their concepts. The most important aspects of the Shahnameh and Vis and Rāmin in the field of language are as follows:
2-1-1-1 Names of Nature
2-1-1-2 Names of meanings
2-2 Current ordinary collocations
2-1-3 Current ironies
2-1-4 The use of adjectives to refer to a noun
2-1-5 Adjective phrase
2-1-6 Prepositions and conjunctions
2-1-6-1 Use of Abba, Abi and Abar in Pahlavi
2-1-6-2 Use of Ider and Idon in Pahlavi
2-1-6-3 The use of “where” to mean “that”
2-1-6-4 The use of "if" to mean "or" and "maybe" to express doubt and to mean "maybe"
2-1-6-5 The use of the word "inside" to mean "in"
One of the achievements of this research is to prove that Vis and Rāmin is not only close to Shahnameh in terms of linguistic and stylistic features, but the composer of Vis and Rāmin was so much under the influence of Shahnameh while writing Vis and Rāmin. The frequent use of ancient words in the both works shows that the both poets were concerned with the great importance of the originality of the words, and the choice of these words has been with the goal of expressing the ideas, traditions and beliefs of the predecessors.