عنوان مقاله [English]
Manteq al-Tayyr is one of the glories of the Islamic thought and brilliant pearls of art that have been decorated with Islamic civilization. The story of sheikh sanaan is the longest story which is haunted in Manteq al-Tayyr and includes 410 couplets. One of the main pillars of Attars poetry, from a poets point of view, it is a masterpiece of the Persian order, and is unbelievably charming, clear and delusional.
The meanings of knowledge in which the most intrinsic and aesthetic and applications of aesthetics are explored and applied; artistic applications that are sometimes written in the first glance are not envisioned and delayed because it spells with wording beauties. In the science of meanings, the first meanings are not words and phrases, but the main purpose in this science is the second meaning. The meaning of secondary meanings means the meanings that the speaker has given to his word for the sake of bringing those meanings in accordance with what is required by the means by which the speaker expresses his intentions and so called Ma fi al-zamir. In this science, words that are not used verbally in their sense are discussed. In the science of meanings, it is a statement of sentences that have no verbal symbols to guide the listener in the secondary sense, and guidance through reason, that is to say, to the circumstances and conditions of the time and place. We use sentences in secondary meanings, because we want our speech to be effective. It is effective to address the current issue (the audience, the reader, the subject, and the author himself). The story of Sheikh Sanaan and the mystical themes mentioned in this story are on the occasion of the present. The reader of Sheikh Sanaans story, in his first reading of the story, wondered what art-making was like. And what is the secret of artistic excellence in it? The mystery of the mysterious and secret hidden behind the beauty of the story of sheikh sanaan is challenging aesthetic things that are used in the science of meanings, and the words are most beautifully arrayed, but not easily understood.
One of the important issues of the science of meanings is the issue of the mentioning the subject (mosnadon elaih). The study of the subject of rhetorical aspects in literary texts makes the aesthetic aspect of these works more dual. The subject is part of the sentence which constitutes the main element of the word. The reasons for rhetoric have been mentioned in order to mention the subject according to the audience. This article tries to criticize wording intention to mention the subject in the narration of Sheikh San'an, from Mantegh al-teir by Attīr. The present study is based on library studies and descriptive-analytic method. The findings are based on content analysis.
The result of this research shows that the secondary motives of the subject are not limited to the same ones as those mentioned in the rhetorical books, but much more because the principles of the science of meanings written in Arabic are not exactly in accordance with Persian language; also, literary, emotional and imaginative pleasures. The poets are not limited; and even different existential reasons can be found in a sentence. The discovery of these intentions shows that the main part of the key to influencing the word of Attar depends on the construction of the sentence and the mention of the subject and its application. From the analysis of the evidence and the examples mentioned above and the second reasons for mentioning the subject in Sheikh Sanaan's narrative, it can be said that most of these abstracts are indicative of mosnadon elaih, which is due to the emphasis on the reader and the fear of the poet from the inability of readers and losing the way the words are expressed. The subject has become more binding (with conjunctions, ambiguous, subject pronouns) to make the subject more prominent and clearer. Attar has been paying attention to the 25th Secondary Thoughts of the Subject, and occasionally, the expression of multiple meanings has taken place simultaneously in one sentence.
The rhetorical reasons for mentioning the subject in this narrative show that: bow and admittance with 41 and 15%, punishment of warning to the audience by 33 and 12%, the principle of mentioning the subject and the non-causal reason for its removal with 22 cases and 8% The petition with 18 and 7 percent, giving the verdict to prevent denial of 17 cases and 6 percent, the statement of exaggeration and claim with 17 and 6 percent, and writing the verdict with 14 and 6 percent of the highest frequency, were proportional with the subject and the purpose of the story. It should be noted that Attar also noted other rhetorical functions mentioned in Sheikh Sanaan's narration, including: humiliation, narration and extension of speech, annulment, surprise, claims of inclusion of judgment, precaution (weakness in the removal of symbols), alteration, and the elimination of illusion Admittance, blame and condemnation, happiness and glad tidings, adultery and obnoxiousness of the audience, consolation, passage of life, witness in the subject, reduction of judgment, distraction and perplexity, disparity and rebellion. Therefore, the secret of the mysterious and mysterious beauty of this story is the aesthetic things used in the science of meanings.
With the tools of semantics in studying "The Sheikh Sanaan Story," we understand the latent and secret purpose of the artist who acquaints us with the many possibilities in his language. It can be understood that Attar had special meanings in rhetoric. Research has tried to recognize the hidden and profound angles of Sheikh Sanaan. For example, one can look at the poet's view of the superiority of love mysticism on ascetic mysticism and neglect of name and disgrace. It is possible to examine this purpose by studying the secondary intentions of the subject in Attar's poetry and revealing the inner layers of the mystical thought of the poet.