عنوان مقاله [English]
The abundant use of poetic attributes is one of the main poetic features of Beyhaghi’s history. Poetic attributes, in addition to being an adjective as a grammatical role, also contains a poetic element including rhetorical elements such as irony, exaggeration, metaphor, synecdoche, etc. thus, leading to an artistic creation. This paper, which is descriptive-analytic and based on library resources, has attempted to examine the poetic elements in Beyhaghi’s History by thoroughly studying Beyhaghi’s history.
The poetic adjective actually plays both a grammatical and an aesthetic role, that is, in addition to its logical and grammatical role; it also has an artistic finesse and delicacy that makes it delightful. For instance, the word ‘man’ is a general term; but when we say a graybeard man or a world seen man, in addition to specifying a man, graybeard and world seen man is a metaphor indicating experience. Beyhaghi’s history contains fascinating and appealing descriptions with a poetic ascription. Beyhaghi has created vivid, dynamic and poetic images by using various descriptions which demonstrates his expertness in poetry.
Beyhaghi has used poetic elements in a variety of situations and positions. It should be noted that each of these elements may contain several rhetorical features; however, the most prominent and tangible feature is considered as the criterion for division. The naming of each of the attributes is based on its practical application and use in Beyhaghi’s history.
Ironical attributes: Ironic poetic elements are those in which a hidden metaphor lies, that is, besides being an adjective it also contains poetic images.
Metaphorical attributes: Such elements are based on simile, in which the writer shows resemblance by using an adjective.
Personification attributes: They are the elements that are associated with implicit metaphor and refers to giving the attributes of a human being to a concept or an object. The poet or writer gives spirit to non-living objects and entities and compares them with human attributes.
Synecdoche attributes: These attributes are closest to the rhetorical elements; and also involves allegorical metaphor and irony.
Sensory attributes: These attributes are derived from the five senses including sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. It is the literary device called synesthesia.
Visual attributes: Generally speaking, attributes help the reader to visualize, and by bringing several adjectives for a noun, readers can visualize different scenes.
Emphatic attributes: The most important characteristic of this attribute is that they are used with emphasis and in fact, Beyhaghi seeks to increase the influence of an attribute.
Adverbial attributes: Another point that is worthy to mention is the poetic adverbial clauses used in Beyhaghi’s work. This group plays the role of an adjective, and sometimes adverb.
A comprehensive study of the book and the high frequency of poetic attributes indicate that Beyhaghi has taken advantage of various attributes to maintain his mission as a moralist historiographer and to adhere to his role as a trusted historian. Beyhaghi uses customary attributes, thereby making his historical accounts attractive rather than fatigue to the reader, making his style unique and one of the popular works in Persian history and literature. Among the rhetorical elements, Beyhaghi has used irony to the largest extent; in addition, other poetic elements such as metaphor, personification, synecdoche, synesthesia, etc. are observed considerably in the book.