نقش عنصر «فضا‌سازی» در خلق محتوای حماسی در «هفت‌خان رستم» از شاهنامة فردوسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 استاد بازنشسته گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

10.22108/liar.2020.119291.1714

چکیده

در عرصۀ داستان‌نویسی معاصر، تحلیل آثار برمبنای عناصر داستان به‌منظورِ تعیین نوع ادبی اثر، شناخت و نقد متن و سنجش قدرت و هدف داستان‌پرداز بسیار رواج یافته است. اگر یکی از رموز جاودانه‌شدن شاهنامه، قدرت فردوسی در داستان‌پردازی قلمداد شود، بررسی عناصر داستان در داستان‌های این منظومه، به‌منظور شناخت بیشترِ ویژگی‌های نوع ادبی حماسی ضروری به ‌نظر می‌رسد. در این پژوهش براساس داستان «هفت‌خان رستم» شاهنامه، تأثیر یکی از مهم‌ترین عناصر سازندۀ داستان یعنی عنصر «فضاسازی» در انتقال فضای حاکم بر اثر و خلق محتوای حماسی و القای روح حماسی به مخاطب تبیین می‌شود. فردوسی در ماجرای «هفت‌خان رستم»، با بهره‌گیری از بن‌مایۀ تکرار‌شوندۀ گذر پهلوان از هفت‌/‌چند خان در حماسه و اسطوره و با تکیه‌بر عنصر «خرق‌ عادت» در قالب عوامل انسانی، عناصر طبیعی و امور جادویی، دلاوری‌های جهان پهلوان حماسۀ ملّی ایران را در مواجهه با بلایا به ‌نمایش گذاشته و فضا و محتوایی متناسب با روح حماسی داستان خلق کرده است. وی در این داستان، به تأثیر عنصر بلاغی «تشبیه» در «فضاسازی» داستان و «اغراق» - جزء جدایی‌ناپذیر حماسه - در ایجاد محتوای حماسی نیز توجه داشته و از این عناصر در راستای رسیدن به هدفش به‌خوبی بهره برده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Function of the "Atmosphere” Element in Creating Epic Content in "Haft Khan Rostam" from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Hoseinzadeh Salati 1
  • Sayed Mahdi Noriyan 2
  • Sayeed Mortaza Hashemi 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Persian Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
In Pahlavi narratives based on the theme of Haft / Multi Khan (seven crossings), events and difficulties occur independently and with a specific purpose in the form of a special story for the hero. Haft Khan Rostam is also an adventurous voyage that the Iranian warrior sets out to rescue King Keykavus.
One of the frequent narrative techniques in storytelling, especially in epic stories, is the use of the "atmosphere" element. The storyteller through creating atmosphere, through descriptions and detailing makes the work more effective and encourages the audience to know the continuation of the story and indirectly induces the dominant spirit of the work.
One of the effective factors in creating an atmosphere appropriate to epic stories is the use of the epic poet's element of unlike habits and the elements of imagination in the creation of his work. The “unlike habit” is one of the most important elements of the epic and represents the course of events which is incompatible with logic and scientific experience and the existence of events and characters.
 
Natural and Terrestrial Elements and Human Factors
Animals: Four End (Rostam horse in the first and third Khan, lion in first Khan and mountain ewe in the second Khan) and Reptiles (dragons in the third Khan, as well as Rostam's question from the dragon about his name and his accountability can also be considered as “unlike habit” elements.
Elements of Nature: Waterless Desert in Khan II
Man - God of the Epic Hero: In epic poetry, we are talking about people who have a divine or supernatural power; for example, a hero like Rostam has superhuman qualities.
Magical Affairs
In societies, earliest humans used magic and witchcraft and magical rituals as weapons against supernatural beings. The Magical Woman in Khan IV is one of the examples of magical affairs.
Dave
In the Shahnameh, the greatest magicians of the Divan are Daves. In the "Haft Khan Rostam" route, World champion encounters Fifth Khan with a guard named Owlad who overcomes him and uses him as a guide in the last two Khan's. Being a guide and companion for the hero on the Haft Khan route is one of the major issues in Iranian narratives. In the sixth Khan, Rostam fights with Arjang Dave and finally in the seventh Khan with Dave White.
 
The Role of Imagination in Shahnameh
The main and constant element in the essence of poetry and one of the most important features of real poetry is the poetic "image" or "imagination". Two of the most influential factors in creating epic space and content in the Shahnameh are the rhetorical element of "simile" and the literary industry "exaggeration".
In an epic poem, one of the roles of "simile" is to help "creating atmosphere". In the epic poetry, the simile is usually used to express the charm of war and the courage of the brave warriors and to mention the traits of warriors, brave men, and heroes.
In "Haft Khan Rostam" verses, 53 verses (15.54%) of the total verses were found to use simile.
 "Exaggeration" is in itself a wonderful array in creating an epic atmosphere and one of the most important forms of imagination in the Shahnameh. In the studied verses, exaggeration was used in 14 bit (4.10% of verses).
 
Result
By examining Haft Khan Rostam, one of the most fascinating stories of the Shahnameh, the power of storytelling by Hakim Toos can be cited as one of the causes of Shahnameh's immortality, because Ferdowsi has been able to draw an atmosphere in which the epic spirit of the ruler has been conveyed to the audience and the epic theme of the heroine's confrontation with difficult obstacles is beautifully illustrated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Fiction
  • Creating atmosphere
  • Epic content
  • Haft Khan (seven crossings) Rostam
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