عنوان مقاله [English]
During the Islamic revolution and the holy defense, poetry and hymns, the representation of dynamic literature, together with the people created an important part of the Iranian history. The combination of the anthem with music, fluent language, simple and ideal concepts are the characteristics that make the anthem communicate with the audience. Research in the language of hymns reveals ideological and cultural values in society by which we can achieve a rooted history and prevent its destruction.
2- Theoretical Framework
The study of literary texts with a variety of theories and criticisms has attracted literary scholars in the twentieth century. The purpose of analyzing texts with new theories and criticisms is to show the delicacies of literary texts. Formalist literary criticism is one of the theories for text analysis regardless of external factors. The focus of formalist analysis is on the literary text as a creature that is far from the role of producer (poet/writer) and consumer (audience) in shaping it. In this paper, according to Leech's classification, the cases of deviation are studied to show the beauty of the lyrics of the hymns.
This paper is based on the theory of formalism and Leech's classification, the frequency of types of deviation was studied in the hymns of the Islamic Revolution, and the Holy defense.
a) Semantic deviation: In the hymns, this type of deviation has the highest frequency with 47.79%. Poets have combined elements of poetry with rhythmic language to express deep and meaningful concepts to make the text full of emotion and more effect. Most semantic deviations in the literary context of hymns belong to irony, metaphor, symbolism, and simile.
b) Archaism: The poets in the hymn use words and structures that are either not used or less commonly used in today's language; they use this method for foregrounding.
c) Syntactic deviation: Ignoring the rules of language syntax, disruption, and displacement of its components and structure to achieve foregrounding indicates that the poet has done it consciously to create beauty.
d) Phonetic deviation: The poet ignores the phonetic rules of language and uses phonetic forms which are not common in the standard language. He uses this technique more to maintain the rhythm of the poem.
Hymns are audio elements so they have no visual function. Therefore, the written deviation frequency in them is zero. Also, since the audience is not involved in verbal complexity, the lexical deviation and creation of new vocabulary are very few.
The use of dialect deviation, local and regional dialects in the hymn is zero due to the importance of conveying the message to the audience. The poets have used less of the spoken language in the anthem because it reduces the grandeur of the anthem.
5- Conclusion and Suggestion
The results of the study show proper use of linguistic capacities and a variety of deviations has made the hymn text fresh and prominent. Using this method does not cause speech failure, but it adds to the beauty and strength of the hymn. Among deviations, the highest frequencies belong to semantic deviation. Irony followed by metaphor, symbol, and simile are the most important ways to influence and attract audiences in the hymn. After semantic deviation, temporal deviation, or archaism, with 33.52% of the total, was used more than any other deviation.
In the hymn, the proper choice of the classic word and its connection with the common language has not caused any interruption in communication with the audience it also highlights the vocabulary of the text, and it creates greatness and strength in the language. The syntactic deviation frequency is 5.63% of the total deviations. Syntactically, most of the sentences in the hymns are simple and orderly. Syntactic deviation often occurs due to ignorance of the rules of the order of the components of a sentence which is a prominent and influential factor in poetry creation. Components of phonetic deviation are used to create harmony, enhance the musical aspect, and increase the influence.