عنوان مقاله [English]
The subject of metaphor began to receive attention in Persian rhetoric books when Tarjomān al-Balāqah asthe first rhetoric onewas published. Since then, it has gone through various rises and falls and has turned into one of the most controversial and even contradictory issues. Therefore, the review of the historical account of metaphor, the critical analysis of the ethical issues in this regard, mentioning the pros and cons in Persian rhetoric books, and finally coming up with some resolutions for the disorders in this subject can affect not only the accurate and scholarly presentation of the development of metaphor in Persian poetry and literature but also the precise understanding of this vital rhetorical concept.
This article aims at presenting a comprehensive display of the concept of metaphor in Persian rhetorical books using descriptive and comparative analysis, and then answer the following research questions: 1) What is the necessity of reviewing the subject of metaphor?; and 2)What components and criteria should be taken into account in the review of metaphor?
Over time, the metaphor has gone through different periods and meaningful transformations, and even in some cases, it has overlooked some essential issues. With a multidimensional look at the subject of metaphor in Persian rhetoric books, three stages could come to account:
Genesis: This stage begins with the first Persian rhetoric books and continues up until the 10th century.
Expansion: This stage begins from the 10th century, coincidental with the Safavid dynasty, and continues up until today in some Persian books.
Trimming and Revision: In this stage, the contents of books are based on the books belonging to the second stage; however, there is sometimes a trace of the concepts in the books of the first stage, too. The contents of the books in this stage are dividable into two main titles: 1(The critical analysis of metaphorical issues in the books of the second stage; and 2( Addition of some new subcategories to metaphor.
In the review of metaphor, we can raise some recommendations, the most important of which include the necessity of:
Revision in the definition and types of metaphor
Attention to the overlooked aspects of metaphor
Critical application of the research in the field of metaphor in other languages.
A review of metaphorical issues in Persian rhetorical books reveals that all the potentials of this figure of speech are not used appropriately and adequately due to the following reasons:
- Lack of a comprehensive definition of metaphor
- Negligence to the essence of the Persian language in the analysis of this issue
- Negligence to metaphorical criticism
- The philosophy behind the formation of metaphor and the transformation of this figurative element in literature
- Imitation of Arabic and western rhetorical subjects without any pathology
- Extremist particularity and expression-formation
- Lack of a determined place for metaphor in literary genres and the writing and oral discourse of Persian speakers
Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to the following points in the retrospective review of metaphorical issues:
- Giving an accurate definition of metaphor
- Elimination of unnecessary types of metaphor and admitting the adequacy of explicit, implicit, and allegorical metaphor
- Paying attention to the developmental process of metaphor in Persian poetry and literature
- Presentation of accurate criteria for metaphorical criticism concerning the analytical and critical perspective of Abd al-Qaher Jorjani and the analytical and conceptual viewpoints of western studies
- Paying attention to the essence of the Persian language in the review of metaphorical issues
- Writing a metaphor dictionary in the Persian language
- Differentiation between the artistic and poetic function of metaphor and its scientific role as we witness the artistic and poetic application of metaphor is negligible in western theories and schools
- Paying attention to the state of metaphor in the writing and oral discourse of Persian speakers and their interrelation
- Specifying the place of metaphor in other branches of science and knowledge